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To understand how virulent mycobacteria subvert host immunity and establish disease, we examined the differential response of mice to infection with various human outbreak Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates. One clinical isolate, HN878, was found to be hypervirulent, as demonstrated by unusually early death of infected immune-competent mice,(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis CDC1551, a clinical isolate reported to be hypervirulent and to grow faster than other isolates, was compared with two other clinical isolates (HN60 and HN878) and two laboratory strains (H37Rv and Erdman). The initial (1-14 days) growth of CDC1551, HN60, HN878, and H37Rv was similar in the lungs of aerosol-infected mice, but(More)
In experimental mycobacterial infection, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is required for control of bacillary growth and the protective granulomatous response, but may cause immunopathology. To directly examine the positive and detrimental effects of this cytokine, a murine model was used in which different amounts of TNF-alpha were delivered to the(More)
The role of TNF-alpha in the control of mycobacterial growth in murine macrophages was studied in vitro. Infection of macrophages from TNF-alpha gene disrupted (TNF-knockout (KO)) mice with recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) expressing the vector only (BCG-vector) resulted in logarithmic growth of the intracellular bacilli.(More)
Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) upregulates expression of certain genes in monocytes, including cell-surface molecules such as HLA class II, B7, and ICAM-1. IFN-gamma also potentiates production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-12. Conversely, IL-10 downregulates expression of many of these same(More)
Stimulation of human monocytes with LPS induces expression of multiple cytokines, including TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-10, IL-10 expression is delayed relative to that of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6. Furthermore, IL-10 feedback inhibits expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6, thus providing an efficient autocrine mechanism for controlling(More)
SETTING Experimental murine tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of cytokine modulation by thalidomide on the progression of the lung granulomatous response following aerosol tuberculosis infection in mice. DESIGN Mice infected by the respiratory route with 200-500 viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman were treated with daily subcutaneous(More)
The induction of cytokine expression in monocytes/macrophages by bacterial endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide is a critical, highly regulated host defence response. The augmentation of LPS responses by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), referred to as priming, is well established. However, the mechanism(s) by which priming occurs is poorly defined. Using tumour(More)
To better understand the contribution of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) to the immune response during the first 60 days of mycobacterial infection in the lungs, IFN-gamma gene disrupted (IFN-gamma-/-) mice were infected via aerosol with recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) secreting murine IFN-gamma (BCG-IFN-gamma) and compared to(More)
The angiogenic growth factor thymidine phosphorylase/PD-ECGF has been identified as a potential target in the development of anti-cancer drugs. This review firstly discusses the biological rôle of TP/PD-ECGF and its importance in the activation of 5-fluorouracil and its prodrugs. The chemistry and chemotherapeutic potential of TP/PD-ECGF inhibitors are also(More)