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We found that increasing ghrelin levels, through subcutaneous injections or calorie restriction, produced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like responses in the elevated plus maze and forced swim test. Moreover, chronic social defeat stress, a rodent model of depression, persistently increased ghrelin levels, whereas growth hormone secretagogue receptor(More)
Humans and mice with loss-of-function mutations of the genes encoding kisspeptins (Kiss1) or kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1r) are infertile due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Within the hypothalamus, Kiss1 mRNA is expressed in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus (Arc). In order to better study the different populations of(More)
BACKGROUND Ghrelin is a potent orexigenic hormone that likely impacts eating via several mechanisms. Here, we hypothesized that ghrelin can regulate extra homeostatic, hedonic aspects of eating behavior. METHODS In the current study, we assessed the effects of different pharmacological, physiological, and genetic models of increased ghrelin and/or(More)
The action of gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) as an intercellular signaling molecule has been intensively studied, but the role of this amino acid metabolite in intracellular metabolism is poorly understood. In this work, we identify a Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue of the GABA-producing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) that is required for normal(More)
The hormones leptin and ghrelin act in apposition to one another in the regulation of body weight homeostasis. Interestingly, both leptin receptor expression and ghrelin receptor expression have been observed within many of the same nuclei of the central nervous system (CNS), suggesting that these hormones may act on a common population of neurons to(More)
Ghrelin is a hormone that influences many physiological processes and behaviors, such as food intake, insulin and growth hormone release, and a coordinated response to chronic stress. However, little is known about the molecular pathways governing ghrelin release and ghrelin cell function. To better study ghrelin cell physiology, we have generated several(More)
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Yap1p is a central determinant of resistance to oxidative stress. Previous work has demonstrated that Yap1p is recruited from the cytoplasm to the nucleus upon exposure to the oxidants diamide and H2O2 in a process that requires the transient covalent linkage of the glutathione peroxidase Gpx3p(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-beta superfamily responsible for mediating a diverse array of cellular functions both during embryogenesis and in adult life. Previously, we reported that upregulation of BMP7 in human melanoma correlates with tumor progression. However, melanoma cells are either inhibited by or become resistant to(More)
The yeast transcriptional regulator Yap1p is a key determinant in oxidative stress resistance. This protein is found in the cytoplasm under non-stressed conditions but rapidly accumulates in the nucleus following oxidant exposure. There it activates transcription of genes encoding antioxidants that return the redox balance of the cell to an acceptable(More)
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone with many known functions, including orexigenic, blood glucose-regulatory, and antidepressant actions, among others. Mature ghrelin is unique in that it is the only known naturally occurring peptide to be posttranslationally modified by O-acylation with octanoate. This acylation is required for many of ghrelin's actions,(More)