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We have developed a novel human laboratory model to examine two primary aspects of stress-precipitated tobacco relapse: (1) Does stress reduce the ability to resist the first cigarette? (2) Once the first cigarette is initiated, does stress facilitate subsequent smoking? Using a within-subject design, daily smokers (n = 37) who were nicotine deprived(More)
OBJECTIVE The primary aim of this project was to examine the role of alcohol use in smoking lapse behavior, as alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for poor smoking cessation outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS We have developed a novel human laboratory model to examine two primary aspects of alcohol-mediated tobacco relapse: (1) Does alcohol facilitate(More)
Stress and prefrontal cognitive dysfunction have key roles in driving smoking; however, there are no therapeutics for smoking cessation that attenuate the effects of stress on smoking and enhance cognition. Central noradrenergic pathways are involved in stress-induced reinstatement to nicotine and in the prefrontal executive control of adaptive behaviors.(More)
BACKGROUND Alcohol and tobacco dependence are highly comorbid disorders, with preclinical evidence suggesting a role for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in alcohol consumption. Varenicline, a partial nicotinic agonist with high affinity for the alpha4beta2 nAChR receptor, reduced ethanol intake in rodents. We aimed to test whether varenicline(More)
Increased nicotine deprivation and impulsivity have been associated with relapse but the degree to which they together influence cognitive processing has not been explored. We examined the effects of increasing levels of nicotine deprivation on cognitive processing, and assessed the relationship of trait impulsivity with these effects in daily smokers(More)
BACKGROUND Many smokers remain refractory to current therapies, which only partially address weight gain after smoking cessation. Thus, this study evaluated whether naltrexone hydrochloride augmentation of nicotine patch therapy improves smoking abstinence and reduces postcessation weight gain more than nicotine patch therapy alone and at what dose. (More)
AIMS Stressful life events known to be associated with substance use were examined to determine if there were sex-specific responses to stress resulting in changes in smoking status. PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS A community-based sample of ever smokers from the Americans' Changing Lives study (n = 1512, 45% female based on sample weights) was used to(More)
Use of human laboratory analogues of smoking behavior can provide an efficient, cost-effective mechanistic evaluation of a medication signal on smoking behavior, with the result of facilitating translational work in medications development. Although a number of human laboratory models exist to investigate various aspects of smoking behavior and nicotine(More)
CONTEXT Sex differences exist in the reinforcing effects of nicotine, smoking cessation rates, and response to nicotine therapies. Sex differences in availability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the β(2) subunit (β(2)*-nAChRs) may underlie differential nicotine and tobacco smoking effects and related behaviors in women vs men. OBJECTIVES(More)
INTRODUCTION To facilitate translational work in medications development for smoking cessation, we have developed a human laboratory analogue of smoking lapse behavior. Our paradigm models 2 critical features of smoking lapse: the ability to resist the first cigarette and subsequent ad libitum smoking. In this paper we present the results of 2 studies(More)