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OBJECTIVE The primary aim of this project was to examine the role of alcohol use in smoking lapse behavior, as alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for poor smoking cessation outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS We have developed a novel human laboratory model to examine two primary aspects of alcohol-mediated tobacco relapse: (1) Does alcohol facilitate(More)
Stress and prefrontal cognitive dysfunction have key roles in driving smoking; however, there are no therapeutics for smoking cessation that attenuate the effects of stress on smoking and enhance cognition. Central noradrenergic pathways are involved in stress-induced reinstatement to nicotine and in the prefrontal executive control of adaptive behaviors.(More)
We have developed a novel human laboratory model to examine two primary aspects of stress-precipitated tobacco relapse: (1) Does stress reduce the ability to resist the first cigarette? (2) Once the first cigarette is initiated, does stress facilitate subsequent smoking? Using a within-subject design, daily smokers (n = 37) who were nicotine deprived(More)
CONTEXT Sex differences exist in the reinforcing effects of nicotine, smoking cessation rates, and response to nicotine therapies. Sex differences in availability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the β(2) subunit (β(2)*-nAChRs) may underlie differential nicotine and tobacco smoking effects and related behaviors in women vs men. OBJECTIVES(More)
Use of human laboratory analogues of smoking behavior can provide an efficient, cost-effective mechanistic evaluation of a medication signal on smoking behavior, with the result of facilitating translational work in medications development. Although a number of human laboratory models exist to investigate various aspects of smoking behavior and nicotine(More)
Long-term smoking can lead to changes in autonomic function, including decreased vagal tone and altered stress responses. One index of the inability to adapt to stress may be blunted vagal reactivity. Stress is a primary mechanism involved in relapse to smoking, but mechanisms leading to stress-precipitated relapse are not well understood. Using an(More)
As a group, cigarette smokers exhibit blunted subjective, behavioral, and neurobiological responses to nondrug incentives and rewards, relative to nonsmokers. Findings from recent studies suggest, however, that there are large individual differences in the devaluation of nondrug rewards among smokers. Moreover, this variability appears to have significant(More)
BACKGROUND Alcohol and tobacco dependence are highly comorbid disorders, with preclinical evidence suggesting a role for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in alcohol consumption. Varenicline, a partial nicotinic agonist with high affinity for the alpha4beta2 nAChR receptor, reduced ethanol intake in rodents. We aimed to test whether varenicline(More)
Increased nicotine deprivation and impulsivity have been associated with relapse but the degree to which they together influence cognitive processing has not been explored. We examined the effects of increasing levels of nicotine deprivation on cognitive processing, and assessed the relationship of trait impulsivity with these effects in daily smokers(More)
This study was designed to investigate the proposed two-factor structure of the 10-item Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief) and to provide evidence for the psychometric properties of this questionnaire using the seven-point scoring set from the original QSU study [Tiffany, S.T., Drobes, D.J. (1991). The development and initial validation of a(More)