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Our laboratory recently molecularly characterized the type II secretion system (T2SS)-associated cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS-secreted AexU effector from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. The role of these toxin proteins in the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila infections was subsequently delineated in in vitro and in vivo models. In(More)
We recently characterized a T3SS effector, AexU, from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila, which exhibited ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) activity. Here we provided evidence that AexU also possessed GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity, which was mainly responsible for host cell apoptosis and disruption of actin filaments. Earlier, we showed(More)
A diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila produces a cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) with cytotoxic, enterotoxic, and hemolytic activities. Our laboratory has characterized from the above Aeromonas strain, in addition to Act, the type 3- and T6-secretion systems and their effectors, as well as the genes shown to modulate the production of AI-1-like(More)
A type III secretion system (T3SS)-associated cytotoxin, AexT, with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and homology to Pseudomonas aeruginosa bifuncational toxins ExoT/S, was recently identified from a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. In this study, we reported the molecular characterization of an aexT-like toxin gene (designated as aexU) from a diarrheal(More)
We recently identified a novel type III secretion system (T3SS) effector, AexU, from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila, and demonstrated that mice infected with the DeltaaexU mutant were significantly protected from mortality. Although the NH(2)-terminal domain of this toxin exhibits homology to AexT of A. salmonicida, a fish pathogen, and(More)
Yersinia pestis is a Gram-negative bacterium, and the causative agent of bubonic plague and pneumonic plague. Because of its potential use as a biological warfare weapon, the plague bacterium has been placed on the list of category A select agents. The dynamics of pneumonic infection following aerosolization of the highly virulent Y. pestis CO92 strain have(More)
Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of human bubonic and pneumonic plague, is spread during natural infection by the fleas of rodents. Historically associated with infected rat fleas, studies on the kinetics of infection in rats are surprisingly few, and these reports have focused mainly on bubonic plague. Although the natural route of primary infection(More)
Yersinia pestis evolved from Y. pseudotuberculosis to become the causative agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague. We identified a homolog of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lipoprotein (lpp) gene in Yersinia species and prepared lpp gene deletion mutants of Y. pseudotuberculosis YPIII, Y. pestis KIM/D27 (pigmentation locus minus), and Y. pestis(More)
We evaluated two commercial F1 antigen capture-based immunochromatographic dipsticks, Yersinia Pestis (F1) Smart II and Plague BioThreat Alert test strips, in detecting plague bacilli by using whole-blood samples from mice experimentally infected with Yersinia pestis CO92. To assess the specificities of these dipsticks, an in-frame F1-deficient mutant of(More)
Deletion of the murein (Braun) lipoprotein gene, lpp, attenuates the Yersinia pestis CO92 strain in mouse models of bubonic and pneumonic plague. In this report, we characterized the virulence of strains from which the plasminogen activating protease (pla)-encoding pPCP1 plasmid was cured from either the wild-type (WT) or the Deltalpp mutant strain of Y.(More)