Shepley Orr

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Field evidence suggests that agents belonging to the same group tend to behave similarly, i.e., behavior exhibits social interaction effects. Testing for such effects raises severe identification problems. We conduct an experiment that avoids these problems. The main design feature is that each subject simultaneously is a member of two randomly assigned and(More)
Health-related Quality of Life measures have recently been attacked from two directions, both of which criticize the preference-based method of evaluating health states they typically incorporate. One attack, based on work by Daniel Kahneman and others, argues that 'experience' is a better basis for evaluation. The other, inspired by Amartya Sen, argues(More)
PURPOSE Health utility values suitable for calculating quality-adjusted life-years are increasingly used to assess the cost-effectiveness of treatments for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the United States, health utilities are usually derived from the patients' own valuation or modeled using visual acuity as a surrogate outcome. In the United(More)
OBJECTIVE Health services often spend more on safety interventions than seems cost-effective. This study investigates whether the public value safety-related health care improvements more highly than the same improvements in contexts where the health care system is not responsible. METHOD An online survey was conducted to elicit the relative importance(More)
As policy-makers and private individuals, we sometimes face choices of the following kind: either choose an alternative which has somewhat lower expected value for each person, but which will substantially improve the outcomes of the worst off, or choose an alternative which has somewhat higher expected value for each person, but which will leave those who(More)
Cost-effectiveness analysis suggests that a society should allocate its health care budget in order to achieve the greatest total health for its budget. However, in ‘rescue’ cases, where an individual’s life is in immediate peril, reasoning in terms of cost-effectiveness can appear inhumane. Hence considerations of cost-effectiveness and of rescue appear to(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has recommended the use of ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and for diabetic macular oedema (DMO) as part of its health technology appraisal process. In the economic evaluations of both interventions, utility values were derived from members of the(More)
BACKGROUND Although many studies have identified public preferences for prioritising health care interventions based on characteristics of recipient or care, very few of them have examined the reasons for the stated preferences. We conducted an on-line person trade-off (PTO) study (N=1030) to investigate whether the public attach a premium to the avoidance(More)