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The GABA projection neurons in the substantial nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are key output neurons of the basal ganglia motor control circuit. These neurons fire sustained high-frequency, short-duration spikes that provide a tonic inhibition to their targets and are critical to movement control. We hypothesized that a robust voltage-activated K(+)(More)
GABA projection neurons (GABA neurons) in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and dopamine projection neurons (DA neurons) in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) have strikingly different firing properties. SNc DA neurons fire low-frequency, long-duration spikes, whereas SNr GABA neurons fire high-frequency, short-duration spikes. Since(More)
Progressive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and virus-induced neuroinflammatory responses effectuate monocyte-macrophage transmigration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A key factor in mediating these events is monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Upregulated glial-derived MCP-1 in HIV-1-infected brain tissues generates a gradient for(More)
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a large family of cation channels. The 28 TRP channel subtypes in rodent are divided into 6 subfamilies: TRPC1-7, TRPV1-6, TRPM1-8, TRPP2/3/5, TRPML1-3 and TRPA1. TRP channels are involved in peripheral olfactory transduction. Several TRPC channels are expressed in unidentified neurons in the main olfactory(More)
The striatum receives serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) innervation and expresses 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs) and other 5-HT receptors, raising the possibility that the striatal 5-HT system may undergo adaptive changes after chronic severe dopamine (DA) loss and contribute to the function and dysfunction of the striatum. Here we show that in(More)
In Parkinson's disease (PD), the dopamine (DA) neuron loss in the substantia nigra and the DA axon loss in the dorsal striatum are severe, but DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area and DA axons in middle and ventral striatal subregions are less affected. Severe DA loss leads to DA receptor supersensitivity, but it was not known whether the(More)
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a key component of the basal ganglia. As the only basal ganglia nucleus comprised of mostly glutamatergic neurons, STN neurons provide a key driving force to their target neurons. Thus, regulation of STN neuron activity is important. One STN regulator is the serotonin (5-HT) system. The STN receives a dense 5-HT innervation.(More)
The dopamine (DA) D2 receptor (D2R)-expressing medium spiny neurons (D2-MSNs) in the striatum project to and inhibit the GABAergic neurons in the globus pallidus (GP), forming an important link in the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia movement control circuit. These striatopallidal axon terminals express presynaptic D2Rs that inhibit GABA release and(More)
The striatonigral projection is a striatal output pathway critical to motor control, cognition, and emotion regulation. Its axon terminals in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) express a high level of serotonin (5-HT) type 1B receptors (5-HT(1B)Rs), whereas the SNr also receives an intense 5-HT innervation that expresses 5-HT transporters, providing(More)