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Calcineurin (CaN) is a Ca2+- and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase (PP2B) that, in yeast, is an integral intermediate of a salt-stress signal transduction pathway that effects NaCl tolerance through the regulation of Na+ influx and efflux. A truncated form of the catalytic subunit and the regulatory subunit of yeast CaN were coexpressed in transgenic(More)
Memory and learning in animals are mediated by neurotransmitters that are released from vesicles clustered at the synapse. As a synapse is used more frequently, its neurotransmission efficiency increases, partly because of increased vesicle clustering in the presynaptic neuron. Vesicle clustering has been believed to result primarily from biochemical(More)
We report the loading and unloading force response of single living adherent fibroblasts due to large lateral indentation obtained by a two-component microelectromechanical systems force sensor. Strong hysteretic force response is observed for all the tested cells. For the loading process, the force response is linear (often with small initial(More)
Large stretching and un-stretching force response of adherent fibroblasts is measured by micromachined mechanical force sensors. The force sensors are composed of a probe and flexible beams. The probe, functionalized by fibronectin, is used to contact the cells. The flexible beams are the sensing element. The sensors are made of single crystal silicon and(More)
We study edge states in graphene systems where a bulk energy gap is opened by inversion symmetry breaking. We find that the edge bands dispersion can be controlled by potentials applied on the boundary with unit cell length scale. Under certain boundary potentials, gapless edge states with valley-dependent velocity are found, exactly analogous to the(More)
The electromotive force induced by a moving magnetic domain wall in a nanostrip has been calculated theoretically and detected experimentally. It is found that the emf depends only on the domain wall transformation frequency through a universal Josephson type relation, which is closely related to the topological nature of the domain wall. Our experimental(More)
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is highly conserved in all metazoan animals and plays critical roles in many developmental processes. Dysregulation of the Hh signaling cascade has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer. Although key components of the Hh pathway have been identified, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the regulation of(More)
In this study, to enhance the capability of metal ions disturbing the orientation of liquid crystals (LCs), we designed a new label-free LC biosensor for the highly selective and sensitive detection of heavy metal ions. This strategy makes use of the target-induced DNA conformational change to enhance the disruption of target molecules for the orientation(More)