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The generation of pyramidal neurons in the mammalian neocortex has been attributed to proliferating progenitor cells within the ventricular zone (VZ). Recently, the subventricular zone (SVZ) has been recognized as a possible source of migratory neurons in brain slice preparations, but the relevance of these observations for the developing neocortex in vivo(More)
Morphine-induced analgesia and antinociceptive tolerance are known to be modulated by interaction between delta-opioid receptors (DORs) and mu-opioid receptors (MORs) in the pain pathway. However, evidence for expression of DORs in nociceptive small-diameter neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and for coexistence of DORs with MORs and neuropeptides has(More)
Expression of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs: VGLUT1, VGLUT2 and VGLUT3) in muscle spindle afferents was examined in rats. VGLUT1 immunoreactivity was detected in the sensory endings on the equatorial and juxta-equatarial regions of intrafusal fibers as well as in many axon terminals within lamina IX of the spinal cord. VGLUT1 might be expressed(More)
The third vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT3, is distributed in cell bodies of neocortical neurons and axon terminals mainly in the superficial part of layer II/III of the cerebral cortex. We examined the chemical characteristics of VGLUT3-expressing neurons by immunohistochemistry in the rat neocortex. Since the vast majority of VGLUT3-immunoreactive(More)
BACKGROUND In auditory fear conditioning, repeated presentation of the tone in the absence of shock leads to extinction of the acquired fear responses. The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is thought to be involved in the extinction of the conditioned fear responses, but its detailed role in initiating and consolidating or maintaining the(More)
Hippocampus-derived neurospheres were prepared from transgenic rat fetuses expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), and transplanted into an alginate-filled lesion of young rat spinal cord. One, two and four weeks after transplantation, a large number of grafted cells survived, many of which expressed immunoreactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein,(More)
The major neuronal components of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) are primary afferent neurons that convey proprioceptive information from the cranioorofacial regions. In the present study, we examined expression of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs), VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, in the primary afferent neurons of the Vmes (Vmes neurons) in neonatal(More)
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic neurons in the spinal dorsal horn have been reported to be divided into distinctive populations, with different cotransmitters and neuropeptides. In this study, we examined the colocalization of enkephalin (ENK) mRNA with GABA in the spinal dorsal horn using the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)(67)-green fluorescence(More)
To characterize glutamatergic axon terminals onto sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs), we visualized immunohistochemically three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) in the intermediolateral cell column (IML) of rat thoracic spinal cord. VGLUT2 and VGLUT3 immunoreactivities but not VGLUT1 immunoreactivity were distributed in the IML and found in(More)
Enkephalin (ENK) has been implicated in nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord while its functional role is not clear because of difficulties in ideally visualizing ENKergic neurons. We thus developed preproenkephalin-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice to better identify ENKergic neurons. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction(More)