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The antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin is a systemic effector in urinary concentration. However, increasing evidence suggests that other locally produced factors may also play an important role in the regulation of water reabsorption in renal collecting ducts. Recently, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor EP4 has emerged as a potential therapeutic(More)
UNLABELLED FAM3A belongs to a novel cytokine-like gene family, and its physiological role remains largely unknown. In our study, we found a marked reduction of FAM3A expression in the livers of db/db and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice. Hepatic overexpression of FAM3A markedly attenuated hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and fatty liver with(More)
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. FXR is mainly expressed in liver and small intestine, where it plays an important role in bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. The kidney also has a high FXR expression level, with its physiological function unknown. Here we(More)
OBJECTIVE Metformin is a first-line antidiabetic drug for type 2 diabetes (T2D) with a relatively good safety profile. Metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is crucial in maintaining renal medullary function, with inappropriate AMPK activation facilitating renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) apoptosis under hypertonic(More)
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