Learn More
Optogenetic methods have emerged as powerful tools for dissecting neural circuit connectivity, function and dysfunction. We used a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic strategy to express the H134R variant of channelrhodopsin-2, ChR2(H134R), under the control of cell type–specific promoter elements. We performed an extensive functional(More)
We report a draft sequence for the genome of the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori), covering 90.9% of all known silkworm genes. Our estimated gene count is 18,510, which exceeds the 13,379 genes reported for Drosophila melanogaster. Comparative analyses to fruitfly, mosquito, spider, and butterfly reveal both similarities and differences in gene content.
Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter, and the habenulo-interpeduncular projection is a major cholinergic pathway in the brain. To study the physiological properties of cholinergic transmission in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), we used a transgenic mouse line in which the light-gated cation channel ChannelRhodopsin-2 is selectively expressed in(More)
To facilitate a functional analysis of neuronal connectivity in a mammalian nervous system that is tightly packed with billions of cells, we developed a new technique that uses inducible genetic manipulations in fluorescently labeled single neurons in mice. Our technique, single-neuron labeling with inducible Cre-mediated knockout (SLICK), is achieved by(More)
Songbirds have one of the most accessible neural systems for the study of brain mechanisms of behavior. However, neuroethological studies in songbirds have been limited by the lack of high-throughput molecular resources and gene-manipulation tools. To overcome these limitations, we constructed 21 regular, normalized, and subtracted full-length cDNA(More)
The monomeric small GTPase Rab27a is specifically localized on both secretory granules and lysosome-related organelles. Although natural mutations of the Rab27a gene in human Griscelli syndrome and in ashen mice cause partial albinism and immunodeficiency reflecting the dysfunction of lysosome-related organelles, phenotypes resulting from the defective(More)
Recently, we identified and characterized a novel protein, granuphilin, whose domain structure is similar to that of the Rab3 effector protein rabphilin3 (J. Wang, T. Takeuchi, H. Yokota, and T. Izumi, J. Biol. Chem. 274:28542-28548, 1999). Screening its possible Rab partner by a yeast two-hybrid system revealed that an amino-terminal zinc-finger domain of(More)
Neuronal cholinergic synapses play important roles in both the PNS and CNS. However, the mechanisms that regulate the formation, maturation, and stability of neuronal cholinergic synapses are poorly understood. In this study, we use the readily accessible mouse superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and submandibular ganglion (SMG) to examine the assembly of the(More)
Autosomal dominant diabetes in the Akita mouse is caused by mutation of the insulin 2 gene, whose product replaces a cysteine residue that is engaged in the formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond. These heterozygous mice exhibit severe insulin deficiency despite coexpression of normal insulin molecules derived from three other wild-type alleles of(More)
The ability to control and manipulate neuronal activity within an intact mammalian brain is of key importance for mapping functional connectivity and for dissecting the neural circuitry underlying behaviors. We have previously generated transgenic mice that express channelrhodopsin-2 for light-induced activation of neurons and mapping of neural circuits.(More)