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Photoreceptor-specific expression of rhodopsin is mediated by multiple cis-acting elements in the proximal promoter region. NRL (neural retina leucine zipper) and CRX (cone rod homeobox) proteins bind to the adjacent NRE and Ret-4 sites, respectively, within this region. Although NRL and CRX are each individually able to induce rhodopsin promoter activity,(More)
Cysteamine is a degradation product of the amino acid cysteine and a reduced form of cystamine. Cysteamine exhibits strong antioxidant activity and has been implicated in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease. In the present study, we investigated whether cysteamine confers protection against(More)
Dengue virus (DV) infection is one of the most common mosquito-borne viral diseases in the world. The innate immune system is important for the early detection of virus and for mounting a cascade of defense measures which include the production of type 1 interferon (IFN). Hence, a thorough understanding of the innate immune response during DV infection(More)
Abundant evidence has suggested that neuroinflammation participates in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The emerging evidence has supported that microglia may play key roles in the progressive neurodegeneration in PD and might be a promising therapeutic target. Ganoderma lucidum (GL), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has been shown(More)
Striatum is an important brain area whose function is related to motor, emotion and motivation. Interestingly, biological and physiological circadian rhythms have been found in the striatum extensively, suggesting molecular clock machinery works efficiently therein. However, the striatal expression profiles of clock genes have not been characterized(More)
Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the neuronal degeneration and can promote the aggregation of alpha-synuclein. However, the role of alpha-synuclein under physiological and pathological conditions remains poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the possible interaction between the alpha-synuclein and oxidative(More)
Although the increased prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) with aging suggests that aging processes predispose dopamine neurons to degeneration, the mechanism involved remains unknown. Dopamine neurons contain significant amounts of neuromelanin, and the amount of neuromelanin increases with aging. In the present study, age-related changes in the number(More)
The tumor necrosis factor family members BAFF and APRIL induce Ig isotype switching in human B cells. We analyzed the ability of BAFF and APRIL to induce isotype switching in murine B cells to IgG1, IgA, and IgE. APRIL and BAFF each engage two receptors, transmembrane activator and calcium-modulator and cytophilin ligand interactor (TACI) and B cell(More)
We previously showed that alpha-synuclein (α-Syn), a protein implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, is a microtubule-associated protein (MAP), facilitating the polymerization of tubulin into microtubules. Therefore, we hypothesized that α-Syn might promote neurite outgrowth, a process that requires microtubule assembly. To(More)
α-Synuclein (α-syn) and oxidative stress play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between α-syn and oxidative stress remain poorly understood. The present study provides evidence to suggest that the nuclear translocation of α-syn increases death of dopaminergic neurons in response(More)