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Bradykinin is an inflammatory mediator that plays a pivotal role in pain and hyperalgesia in inflamed tissues by exciting and/or sensitizing nociceptors. TRPA1 is an important component of the transduction machinery through which environmental irritants and endogenous proalgesic agents depolarize nociceptors to elicit inflammatory pain. Here, using(More)
Peripheral nerve injury causes neuropathic pain including mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia due to central and peripheral sensitization. Spontaneous ectopic discharges derived from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and from the sites of injury are a key factor in the initiation of this sensitization. Numerous studies have focused primarily on(More)
BACKGROUND Resveratrol (3,5,4' - trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a widely distributed natural stilbenoid, was proposed to account for the unique effects of red wine on life span and health. It has been reported to possess various biological and pharmacological activities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic effects. Here, using(More)
Proinflammatory agents trypsin and mast cell tryptase cleave and activate PAR2, which is expressed on sensory nerves to cause neurogenic inflammation. Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is an excitatory ion channel on primary sensory nerves of pain pathway. Here, we show that a functional interaction of PAR2 and TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG)(More)
After >8,000 infections and >700 deaths worldwide, the pathogenesis of the new infectious disease, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), remains poorly understood. We investigated 18 autopsies of patients who had suspected SARS; 8 cases were confirmed as SARS. We evaluated white blood cells from 22 confirmed SARS patients at various stages of the(More)
The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) in DRG and dorsal horn neurons is induced by the C-fiber electrical stimulation to the peripheral nerve. The present study was designed to investigate the expression and modulation of pERK in the rat dorsal horn neurons produced by repetitive electrical stimulation, and its involvement in(More)
Proinflammatory agents trypsin and mast cell tryptase cleave and activate protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), which is expressed on sensory nerves and causes neurogenic inflammation. P2X3 is a subtype of the ionotropic receptors for adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), and is mainly localized on nociceptors. Here, we show that a functional interaction of the(More)
BACKGROUND Honeybee's sting on human skin can induce ongoing pain, hyperalgesia and inflammation. Injection of bee venom (BV) into the intraplantar surface of the rat hindpaw induces an early onset of spontaneous pain followed by a lasting thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in the affected paw. The underlying mechanisms of BV-induced thermal and(More)
BACKGROUND Artemin, a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family, is known to have a variety of neuronal functions, and has been the subject of attention because it has interesting effects, including bi-directional results in modulation in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. It has been shown that the overexpression of artemin is(More)
Background/Aims : Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-7 (rhBMP-7) alleviates renal fibrosis and improves kidney function. However, the beneficial effect of BMP-7 on hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis remains unknown. The purpose of this(More)