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Cerebral cortical brain networks possess a number of conspicuous features of structure and dynamics. First, these networks have an intricate, non-random organization. In particular, they are structured in a hierarchical modular fashion, from large-scale regions of the whole brain, via cortical areas and area subcompartments organized as structural and(More)
Although B cells have been shown to possess a regulatory function, microenvironmental factors or cytokines involved in the induction of regulatory B cells remain largely uncharacterized. B cell-activating factor (BAFF), a member of TNF family cytokines, is a key regulator for B cell maturation and function. In this study, we detected significantly increased(More)
Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are recognized as a distinct CD4(+) helper T-cell subset, which provides for B-cell activation and production of specific antibody responses, and play a critical role in the development of autoimmune disease. So far, only one study investigated the circulating Tfh cells increased in a subset of SLE patients. Since relatively(More)
—The segmentation of the ascending aorta from multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) volume data is one of the critical steps for the quantitative analysis coronary artery. In this paper, a fast and automatic iterative method is presented. The method locates the volume of interest (VOI) of the ascending aorta and detects the seed point automatically. Then(More)
Calcineurin (CaN) is a neuronally enriched, calcium-dependent phosphatase, which plays an important role in a number of neuronal processes including development of learning and memory, and modulation of receptor's function and neuronal excitability as well as induction of apoptosis. It has been established in kindling model that the status epilepticus(More)
Opioids have been widely applied in clinics as one of the most potent pain relievers for centuries, but their abuse has deleterious physiological effects beyond addiction. We previously reported that opioids inhibit cell growth and trigger apoptosis in lymphocytes. However, the underlying mechanism by which microglia apoptosis in response to opioids is not(More)
Oxidative stress is a mechanism of cell death induced by seizures. Antioxidant compounds have neuroprotective effects due to their ability to inhibit free radical production. Autophagy is a process in which cytoplasmic components such as organelles and proteins are delivered to the lysosomal compartment for degradation, and plays an essential role in the(More)
Diazoxide (DZ), a highly selective opener of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoK(ATP)) channel, has neuroprotective effects. However, the mechanism of DZ protecting hippocampal neurons against cell death in pilocarpine-induced seizures is unknown. In this study, we investigated DZ attenuating neuronal loss caused by pilocarpine-induced seizures(More)
Approximately 20-30% of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures despite carefully monitored treatment with antiepileptic drugs. The mechanisms that underlie why some patients are responsive and others prove resistant to antiepileptic drugs are poorly understood. Increasing evidence supports a role for altered mitochondrial function in the(More)
The imbalance of Th17/Treg cell populations has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis; however, the mechanism behind this phenomenon remains unclear. Recent studies have shown how microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of immune responses and are involved in the development of a variety of(More)