Shengjun Tan

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The light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) are a superfamily of chlorophyll-binding proteins present in all photosynthetic eukaryotes. The Lhc genes are nuclear-encoded, yet the pigment–protein complexes are localized to the thylakoid membrane and provide a marker to follow the evolutionary paths of plastids with different pigmentation. The LHCs are divided into(More)
Gene presence/absence (P/A) polymorphisms are commonly observed in plants and are important in individual adaptation and species differentiation. Detecting their abundance, distribution and variation among individuals would help to understand the role played by these polymorphisms in a given species. The recently sequenced 80 Arabidopsis genomes provide an(More)
The XA21 protein has broad spectrum resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Although Xa21-mediated immunity is well characterized, little is known about the origin and evolutionary history of this gene in grasses. Therefore, we analyzed all Xa21 gene homologs in eight whole-genome sequenced rice lines, as well as in four gramineous genomes, rice,(More)
In a broad range of taxa, genes can duplicate through an RNA intermediate in a process mediated by retrotransposons (retroposition). In mammals, L1 retrotransposons drive retroposition, but the elements responsible for retroposition in other animals have yet to be identified. Here, we examined young retrocopies from various animals that still retain the(More)
NBS-LRR (nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat), LRR-RLK (LRR-receptor-like kinase), and LRR-only are the three major LRR-encoding genes. Owing to the crucial role played by them in plant resistance, development, and growth, extensive studies have been performed on the NBS-LRR and LRR-RLK genes. However, few studies have focused on these genes(More)
How the structure and base composition of genes changed with the evolution of vertebrates remains a puzzling question. Here we analyzed 895 orthologous protein-coding genes in six multicellular animals: human, chicken, zebrafish, sea squirt, fruit fly, and worm. Our analyses reveal that many gene regions, particularly intron and 3' UTR, gradually expanded(More)
Trypsin participates in many fundamental biological processes, the most notably in digesting food. The 12 species of Drosophila provide a great opportunity to analyze the duplication pattern of trypsins and their association with dietary changes. Here, we find that the trypsin family expands dramatically after speciation. The duplication events are strongly(More)
Protein is an essential component for life, and its synthesis is mediated by codons in any organisms on earth. While some codons encode the same amino acid, their usage is often highly biased. There are many factors that can cause the bias, but a potential effect of mononucleotide repeats, which are known to be highly mutable, on codon usage and codon pair(More)
Plant resistance genes (R genes) harbor tremendous allelic diversity, constituting a robust immune system effective against microbial pathogens. Nevertheless, few functional R genes have been identified for even the best-studied pathosystems. Does this limited repertoire reflect specificity, with most R genes having been defeated by former pests, or do(More)
RNA-based duplicated genes or functional retrocopies (retrogenes) are known to drive phenotypic evolution. Retrogenes emerge via retroposition, which is mainly mediated by long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposons in mammals. By contrast, long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons appear to be the major player in plants, although(More)