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Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias is a paroxysmal movement disorder characterized by recurrent, brief attacks of abnormal involuntary movements induced by sudden voluntary movements. Although several loci, including the pericentromeric region of chromosome 16, have been linked to paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias, the causative gene has not yet been(More)
Secreted factors FGF8 and WNT1 are essential either for the inductive activity of the isthmus organizer or for the regionalization of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB). However, transcriptional regulation of these secreted factors during development remains to be elucidated. Here we show that the LIM homeobox gene Lmx1b is expressed in the anterior(More)
Microglia cells are the brain counterpart of macrophages and function as the first defense in the brain. Although they are neuroprotective in the young brain, microglia cells may be primed to react abnormally to stimuli in the aged brain and to become neurotoxic and destructive during neurodegeneration. Aging-induced immune senescence occurs in the brain as(More)
LRRK2 (PARK8) is the most common genetic determinant of Parkinson's disease (PD), with dominant mutations in LRRK2 causing inherited PD and sequence variation at the LRRK2 locus associated with increased risk for sporadic PD. Although LRRK2 has been implicated in diverse cellular processes encompassing almost all cellular compartments, the precise functions(More)
Monocyte infiltration is an important pathogenic event in human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) associated dementia (HAD). CXCL8 (Interleukin 8, IL-8), a CXC chemokine that elicits chemotaxis of neutrophils, has recently been found to recruit monocytes or synergistically enhance CCL2-mediated monocyte migration. In this report, we demonstrate CXCL8(More)
The main objective of this study was to assess the economic cost of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Shanghai, China, as a pilot study for future evaluations. Sixty-seven patients with AD were interviewed, and the information of the AD-related cost and resources used was collected from October 2005 to September 2006. By retrospective analysis, annual costs were(More)
To evaluate the Chinese version of the Parkinson's disease sleep scale (PDSS) as an instrument for measuring sleep disorders in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of the present study was to carry out a metric analysis of a Chinese version of PDSS using a cross-sectional study of 126 patients with PD who participated in the study.(More)
Growing evidence suggests that extracellular alpha-synuclein (eSNCA) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and related synucleinopathies by producing neurotoxicity directly or via activation of glia. However, the mechanisms involved in the trafficking of eSNCA in neurons and/or glia remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated(More)
In vivo and in vitro studies have suggested a neuroprotective role for Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) against neuronal insults. Here, we showed that PACAP27 protects against neurotoxicity induced by rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The(More)