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Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion(More)
To better determine the history of modern birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships. We identified the first divergence in(More)
Analysis of global methylation in cells has revealed correlations between overall DNA methylation status and some biological states. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic regulation through DNA methylation could be responsible for neuroadaptations induced by addictive drugs. However, there is no investigation to determine global DNA methylation status(More)
BACKGROUND Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is considered to be the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which has become a serious economic problem for the swine industry worldwide. The major genotypes, PCV2a and PCV2b, are highly prevalent in the pig population and are present worldwide. However, another newly(More)
Experimental evidence suggests the involvement of the brain dopaminergic system in learning and memory processes, although the associated molecular mechanism has yet to be fully characterized. Memory formation occurs via a number of signaling pathways associated with activation of many synaptic plasticity-related proteins, including the N-Methyl-D-aspartic(More)
Dynorphin peptides and k-opioid receptor are important in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse such as heroin. This study examined potential association between heroin dependence and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of prodynorphin (PDYN) gene (rs35286281 in promoter region and rs1022563, rs2235749, rs910080 in 3'UTR). Participants included(More)
(S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine, HPMPC, and two HPMPC-related nucleoside analogs, (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine, HPMPA, and (2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)guanine, PMEG, were evaluated for their antiviral activities against guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) infection in guinea pig embryo (GPE) cells and human(More)
POPULATIONS The population studied was the Tujia population, living in the Hunan Province, China. Their ancestors had lived in the region for at least three generations. As a Chinese minority group, the Tujia ethnic group, with a population of 8,028,133 (year of 2000), is mainly distributed in the Wuling mountain area in the three provinces of Hunan, Hubei,(More)
Sertraline, one of the oldest antidepressants, remains to be the most efficacious treatment for depression. However, major depression disorder (MDD) is characterized by altered emotion processing and deficits in cognitive control. In cognitive interference tasks, patients with MDD have shown excessive hypothalamus activity. The purpose of this study was to(More)
Smart home is a networked intelligent living environment which employs a house as the platform to integrate automatic control system, computer network system and communication technology all-in-one. In order to avoid the constraints of cabling, moving and aesthetics in the traditional smart home system using wired network, a design of smart home network(More)