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To better determine the history of modern birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships. We identified the first divergence in(More)
Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion(More)
Analysis of global methylation in cells has revealed correlations between overall DNA methylation status and some biological states. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic regulation through DNA methylation could be responsible for neuroadaptations induced by addictive drugs. However, there is no investigation to determine global DNA methylation status(More)
Dynorphin peptides and k-opioid receptor are important in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse such as heroin. This study examined potential association between heroin dependence and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of prodynorphin (PDYN) gene (rs35286281 in promoter region and rs1022563, rs2235749, rs910080 in 3'UTR). Participants included(More)
Sertraline, one of the oldest antidepressants, remains to be the most efficacious treatment for depression. However, major depression disorder (MDD) is characterized by altered emotion processing and deficits in cognitive control. In cognitive interference tasks, patients with MDD have shown excessive hypothalamus activity. The purpose of this study was to(More)
Experimental evidence suggests the involvement of the brain dopaminergic system in learning and memory processes, although the associated molecular mechanism has yet to be fully characterized. Memory formation occurs via a number of signaling pathways associated with activation of many synaptic plasticity-related proteins, including the N-Methyl-D-aspartic(More)
There is evidence indicating that the brain's dopaminergic system is involved in age-associated memory impairment. However, specific roles in this process for the different dopamine receptor subtypes have not been elucidated. The cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) is one of the cellular molecules that have been strongly implicated in the synaptic(More)
Recently, evidence has accumulated indicating that the MIR137 gene and the target gene CACNA1C of miR-137 might be two of the most robustly implicated genes in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in two genes by performing an association analysis in a cohort of 1430 schizophrenia patients and 1570(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is needed to support neuronal survival and differentiation. It also promotes synaptic remodeling and modulates the function of many other neurotransmitters. BDNF is implicated in major depression (MD), and to a lesser extent, in schizophrenia. In the current study, we examined BDNF polymorphisms (G-712A, C270T and(More)
The phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) is a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SCZ), interacting with DISC1, a known genetic risk factor for SCZ. To examine if variants within PDE4B gene are associated with SCZ in Northwestern Han Chinese, and if these effects vary in gender-specific subgroup, we analyzed 20 SNPs, selected from previous studies and(More)