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To better determine the history of modern birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships. We identified the first divergence in(More)
Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion(More)
BACKGROUND Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is considered to be the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which has become a serious economic problem for the swine industry worldwide. The major genotypes, PCV2a and PCV2b, are highly prevalent in the pig population and are present worldwide. However, another newly(More)
Experimental evidence suggests the involvement of the brain dopaminergic system in learning and memory processes, although the associated molecular mechanism has yet to be fully characterized. Memory formation occurs via a number of signaling pathways associated with activation of many synaptic plasticity-related proteins, including the N-Methyl-D-aspartic(More)
Analysis of global methylation in cells has revealed correlations between overall DNA methylation status and some biological states. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic regulation through DNA methylation could be responsible for neuroadaptations induced by addictive drugs. However, there is no investigation to determine global DNA methylation status(More)
The phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) is a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SCZ), interacting with DISC1, a known genetic risk factor for SCZ. To examine if variants within PDE4B gene are associated with SCZ in Northwestern Han Chinese, and if these effects vary in gender-specific subgroup, we analyzed 20 SNPs, selected from previous studies and(More)
Y-chromosomal STRs loci were analyzed from a sample of 119 healthy unrelated autochthonous male individuals of Chinese Tibetan ethnic minority group using a multiplex PCR system. Allele and haplotype frequencies for DYS19, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a,b, DYS438, and DYS439 were determined by the Y-PLEXtrade mark 12 kit. The(More)
Dynorphin peptides and k-opioid receptor are important in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse such as heroin. This study examined potential association between heroin dependence and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of prodynorphin (PDYN) gene (rs35286281 in promoter region and rs1022563, rs2235749, rs910080 in 3'UTR). Participants included(More)
The serotoninergic (5-HT) system regulates neuronal activity in broad brain regions, and appears to be particularly important for modulating behavioral and physiological functions such as mood, emotion, sleep and appetite. Central 5-HT deregulation may be involved in many neuropsychological disorders, which include substance abuse and addiction. Previous(More)