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Currently, knowledge about the impact of high-grain (HG) feeding on rumen microbiota and metabolome is limited. In this study, a combination of the 454 pyrosequencing strategy and the mass spectrometry-based metabolomics technique was applied to investigate the effects of increased dietary grain (0%, 25% and 50% maize grain) on changes in whole ruminal(More)
High-grain (HG) feeding used in intensive goat production can affect the physiology of the rumen wall, but the changes induced in the epimural bacterial community and host Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are not well understood. In this study, 10 male goats were randomly allocated to two groups and fed either a hay diet (0% grain; n = 5) or an HG diet (65%(More)
The metabolomic profile of the anaerobic fungus Piromyces sp. F1, isolated from the rumen of goats, and how this is affected by the presence of naturally associated methanogens, was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The major metabolites in the fungal monoculture were formate, lactate, ethanol, acetate, succinate, sugars/amino acids and(More)
This study aimed to obtain natural cultures of anaerobic fungi and their indigenously associated methanogens from herbivores and investigate their ability to degrade lignocelluloses to methane. Eight natural cultures were obtained by Hungate roll tube technique. The fungi were identified as belonging to Piromyces, Anaeromyces and Neocallimastix respectively(More)
Three methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from liquid (LM), solid (SM) and epithelium (EM) fractions taken from the rumen of Jinnan cattle in China. After the amplification by PCR using methanogen-specific primers Met86F and Met1340R, equal quantities of PCR products from the same fractions from each of the four cattle were mixed(More)
Rumen methanogen diversity in the co-cultures with anaerobic fungi from goat rumen was analyzed. Mix-cultures of anaerobic fungi and methanogens were obtained from goat rumen using anaerobic fungal medium and the addition of penicillin and streptomycin and then subcultured 62 times by transferring cultures every 3 - 4d. Total DNA from the original rumen(More)
Obligate anaerobic fungi have only been reported in gastrointestinal and fecal communities since their first discovery in 1975 (Orpin, 1975), and have been found to exist exclusively in herbivores, including ruminants and hindgut-fermenting animals (Theodorou et al., 1995). These fungi play an important role in the primary digestion of plant fiber via a(More)
miRNAs are a class of small, approximately 22nt, non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They play profound and pervasive roles in manipulating gene expression involved in cell development, proliferation and apoptosis in various eukaryotes, which, in theory, could provide an access to many human diseases(More)
In order to assess methanogen diversity in feces of pigs, archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from feces of the pig. After the amplification by PCR using primers Met86F and Met1340R, equal quantities of PCR products from each of the five pigs were mixed together and used to construct the library. Sequence analysis showed that the 74(More)
Alterations in rumen epithelial tight junctions (TJs) at the tissue and molecular levels during high-grain (HG) diet feeding are unknown. Here, 10 male goats were randomly assigned to either a hay diet (0% grain; n = 5) or HG diet group (65% grain; n = 5) to characterize the changes in ruminal epithelial structure and TJ protein expression and localization(More)