Learn More
The generation of pyramidal neurons in the mammalian neocortex has been attributed to proliferating progenitor cells within the ventricular zone (VZ). Recently, the subventricular zone (SVZ) has been recognized as a possible source of migratory neurons in brain slice preparations, but the relevance of these observations for the developing neocortex in vivo(More)
Morphine-induced analgesia and antinociceptive tolerance are known to be modulated by interaction between delta-opioid receptors (DORs) and mu-opioid receptors (MORs) in the pain pathway. However, evidence for expression of DORs in nociceptive small-diameter neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and for coexistence of DORs with MORs and neuropeptides has(More)
The third vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT3, is distributed in cell bodies of neocortical neurons and axon terminals mainly in the superficial part of layer II/III of the cerebral cortex. We examined the chemical characteristics of VGLUT3-expressing neurons by immunohistochemistry in the rat neocortex. Since the vast majority of VGLUT3-immunoreactive(More)
Morphine-induced analgesia and antinociceptive tolerance are known to be modulated by interaction between δ-opioid receptors (DORs) and μ-opioid receptors (MORs) in the pain pathway. However , evidence for expression of DORs in nociceptive small-diameter neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and for coexistence of DORs with MORs and neuropeptides has(More)
Noxious stimuli can usually cause the aversive sensations, pain and itch. The initial integration of such noxious information occurs in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord (SDH), which is very important for understanding pain sensation and developing effective analgesic strategies. The circuits formed by pools of neurons and terminals within SDH(More)
To characterize glutamatergic axon terminals onto sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs), we visualized immunohistochemically three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) in the intermediolateral cell column (IML) of rat thoracic spinal cord. VGLUT2 and VGLUT3 immunoreactivities but not VGLUT1 immunoreactivity were distributed in the IML and found in(More)
Diabetic cognitive dysfunction (DCD), usually accompanied with chronically elevated glucocorticoids and hippocampal astrocytic alterations, is one of the most serious complications in patients with type-1 diabetes. However, the role for chronically elevated glucocorticoids and hippocampal astrocytic activations in DCD remains to be elucidated, and it is not(More)
The lateral capsular division of central nucleus of amygdala (CeC) contains neurons using γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as the predominant neurotransmitter and expresses abundant calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive terminals. However, the relationship between them has not been revealed yet. Using GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in(More)
Effects of c-fos antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASO) on serotonin (5-HT)-induced upregulation of preprodynorphin (ppDyn), preproenkephalin (ppEnk), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a special chemical marker for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons, mRNAs in cultured spinal dorsal horn neurons were investigated in order to extend our understanding(More)
BACKGROUND Previous theories considered that the main cause of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) was due to hyperglycemia. However, recent evidence indicated that hyperinsulinemia plays a greater role in type 2 diabetic metabolisms (T2DM). OBJECTIVES Our aim was to explore insulin signaling to determine the molecular mechanism involved in the pathogenesis(More)