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Stress is an important factor in the initiation and maintenance of smoking in adolescents. Women are more vulnerable to the development of addiction to smoking and have more difficulty quitting than men. Women also showe enhanced responses to stress. Despite these differences, no work has been done examining the effects of stress on the reinforcing efficacy(More)
Stress increases drug intake. This depends on the stressor, drug, and aspect of drug seeking assessed. The objectives of these experiments done in adolescent and adult male rats were to (1) examine social defeat effects on acquisition of nicotine self-administration (SA) and the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine and (2) determine the effects of acute(More)
Phantom limb pain has been well described in the literature. However, new-onset lumbar radicular pain superimposed on baseline lower extremity phantom pain is a clinical scenario that can be challenging to recognize. Furthermore, literature on recognition and treatment of phantom radiculopathy is all but lacking. We present a patient who experienced(More)
Objective.  Spinal cord stimulator (SCS) parameter settings have been well studied; however, the goal of this exploratory study was to examine the SCS parameters used during intra-operative stimulation (IOS) at trial lead placement. Methods.  In this retrospective study, we report the IOS parameter settings for 22 patients who underwent thoracic SCS lead(More)
The application of Partial Membership Latent Dirichlet Allocation (PM-LDA) for hyperspectral endmember estimation and spectral unmixing is presented. PM-LDA provides a model for a hyperspectral image analysis that accounts for spectral variability and incorporates spatial information through the use of superpixel-based “documents.” In our(More)
The alkali-extractable polysaccharides (APMPs) were isolated from the water extracted residues of Radix Polygoni Multiflori, and further purified by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography to obtain a homogeneous polysaccharide (APMP-2) with molecular weights of 7724.8 Da. HPLC chromatography analysis identified that APMP-2 was a(More)
The hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometers have not realized its theoretical sensitivity, the optimization is critical for optimal performance. The optimizations proposed in this paper are suitable for hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometer, which contains two alkali species. To optimize the parameters, the dynamic equations of spin evolution with(More)
In the past several decades, hyperspectral imaging has drawn a lot of attention in the field of remote sensing. Yet, due to low spatial resolutions of hyperspectral imagers, often the response from more than one surface material can be found in some hyperspectral pixels. These pixels are called mixed pixels. Mixed pixels bring challenges to traditional(More)
A novel method to compensate the residual magnetic field for an atomic magnetometer consisting of two perpendicular beams of polarizations was demonstrated in this paper. The method can realize magnetic compensation in the case where the pumping rate of the probe beam cannot be ignored. In the experiment, the probe beam is always linearly polarized,(More)
BACKGROUND Polymer surface-modified inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) provide a multifunctional platform for assisting gene delivery. Rational structure design for enhancing colloidal stability and cellular uptake is an important strategy in the development of safe and highly efficient gene vectors. RESULTS Heterogeneous Au-coated Fe3O4 (Fe3O4@Au) NPs capped(More)