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The immune system can act as an extrinsic suppressor of tumors. Therefore, tumor progression depends in part on mechanisms that downmodulate intrinsic immune surveillance. Identifying these inhibitory pathways may provide promising targets to enhance antitumor immunity. Here, we show that Stat3 is constitutively activated in diverse tumor-infiltrating(More)
BACKGROUND Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNAs) may alter the processing, transcription, and expression of miRNAs and, thus, may contribute to cancer development. The authors hypothesized that common polymorphisms in pre-miRNAs are associated individually and (more likely) collectively with the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the(More)
PIN1, a new peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase, regulates the conformation of Pro-directed phosphorylation sites, revealing a new postphosphorylation regulatory mechanism. PIN1-induced conformational changes potentiate multiple oncogenic signaling pathways, and PIN1 overexpression is reported as a prevalent and specific event in human cancers. In this(More)
The novel immune-type receptor (NITR) genes encode a unique multigene family of leukocyte regulatory receptors, which possess an extracellular Ig variable (V) domain and may function in innate immunity. Artificial chromosomes that encode zebrafish NITRs have been assembled into a contig spanning approximately 350 kb. Resolution of the complete NITR gene(More)
Hardware Trojans (HTs) pose a significant threat to the modern and pending integrated circuit (IC). Due to the diversity of HTs and intrinsic process variation (PV) in IC design, detecting and locating HTs is challenging. Several approaches have been proposed to address the problem, but they are either incapable of detecting various types of HTs or unable(More)
PURPOSE The therapeutic benefit of the cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells was unknown in the renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This prospectively randomized study was conducted to evaluate the effects of autologous CIK cell immunotherapy in patients with metastatic clear cell RCCs. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN From June 2005 to June 2008, 148 patients with metastatic(More)
PURPOSE Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulate in tumor-bearing hosts and are associated with immune suppression. To date, there have only been few studies that evaluate the direct effect of chemotherapeutic agents on MDSCs. Agents that inhibit MDSCs may be useful in the treatment of patients with various cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We(More)
BACKGROUND Metabolic syndrome traits play an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. Adipokines, key metabolic syndrome cellular mediators, when abnormal, may induce carcinogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To investigate whether polymorphisms of important adipokines, adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and its receptors, either alone or in(More)
Although the role of TNFAIP2 is still unclear, it is an important gene involved in apoptosis, and there are single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at its microRNA (miRNA)-binding sites that could modulate miRNA target gene function. In this study, we evaluated associations of four selected SNPs (rs8126 T > C, rs710100 G > A, rs1052912 G > A and rs1052823 G(More)
This paper proposes Hardware Trojan (HT) placement techniques that yield challenging HT detection benchmarks. We develop three types of one-gate HT benchmarks based on switching power, leakage power, and delay measurements that are commonly used in HT detection. In particular, we employ an iterative searching algorithm to find rarely switching locations, an(More)