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The distribution of SP-like immunoreactivity in the sensory and sympathetic ganglia, as well as the fiber connection between sensory ganglia and sympathetic ganglia (SG) were studied by the immunohistochemical ABC and HRP methods. A large number of SP-like neurons were found in all dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and a large number of SP-like fibers and(More)
Focal brain ischemia induced in rats by occlusion of an intracranial artery is a widely used paradigm of human brain infarct. Details of the structural changes that develop in either the human or the rat brain at various times after occlusion of an intracranial artery are incompletely characterized. We studied, in 48 adult Wistar rats, structural(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS We have identified that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) neurons are responsive to colorectal distention (CRD) and shown that sensitization of ACC neurons occurs in viscerally hypersensitive rats. However, the role of the ACC in pain response has not been clearly defined. We aimed to determine if ACC neuron activation enhances visceral(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Electrophysiologic and behavioral studies have shown that increased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor activation of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) neurons has a critical role in modulating visceral pain responses in viscerally hypersensitive (VH) rats. This study aimed to identify the NMDA receptor subtypes in perigenual ACC (pACC)(More)
The NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is up-regulated in viscerally hypersensitive (VH) rats induced by colonic anaphylaxis. It plays a critical role in modulation of ACC sensitization and visceral pain responses. Given the key role of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in synaptic plasticity and(More)
Exenatide is the first glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Exenatide lowers blood glucose through multiple mechanisms, including enhancement of glucose-dependent insulin secretion, suppression of excess glucagon secretion, reduction of food intake and slowing of gastric emptying.(More)
The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) staining technique was utilized as a marker of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to map NOS expression in developing and adult rat cerebellum. NADPH-d-positive cells were first visualized in the cerebellar cortex at postnatal day 5 (PND5) which increased to peak levels by PND30 when they began(More)
Serotonin (5-HT) plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS), and luminal 5-HT time-dependently modulates visceral nociception. We found that duodenal biopsies from PI-IBS patients exhibited increased 5-HT and decreased anandamide levels and that decreased anandamide was associated with abdominal pain(More)
AIM To investigate the incidence of nocturnal dyspeptic symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) and whether prokinetic drugs can alleviate them. METHODS Eighty-five consecutive Chinese patients with FD were included in this study. One week after single-blinded placebo run-in treatment, baseline nocturnal intragastric pH, bile reflux and(More)
Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD) model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain, and showed that perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC)(More)