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Correct development of the limb is dependent on coordination between three distinct signaling centers. Recently, fibroblast growth factor-4 has been identified as a crucial determinant of AER function, which directs limb bud outgrowth, and Sonic hedgehog has been identified as a signaling molecule that mediates ZPA function, which specifies(More)
OBJECTIVE Macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance via the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Our goal is to decipher the molecular linkage between proinflammatory cytokine production and insulin resistance in macrophages. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We determined cytokine profiles in cultured macrophages and(More)
Alx4 and Cart1 are closely related members of the family of transcription factors that contain the paired-type homeodomain. In contrast to other types of homeodomains, the paired-type homeodomain has been shown to mediate high-affinity sequence-specific DNA binding to palindromic elements as either homodimers or as heterodimers with other family members.(More)
BACKGROUND The FAS and FASL system plays a key role in regulating apoptotic cell death and corruption of this signalling pathway has been shown to participate in immune escape and tumorigenesis. There is reduced expression of FAS but elevated expression of FASL in many types of human cancers including lung cancer. We recently reported an association between(More)
The cause of the neurodegenerative process in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear, but evidence suggests that failure of the ubiquitin-proteasome system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Iron is believed to be a key contributor to PD pathology by inducing aggregation of alpha-synuclein and by generating oxidative stress. Our(More)
Mutations that affect vertebrate limb development provide insight into pattern formation, evolutionary biology and human birth defects. Patterning of the limb axes depends on several interacting signaling centers; one of these, the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), comprises a group of mesenchymal cells along the posterior aspect of the limb bud that(More)
CONTEXT Promoter mutations chr5:1,295,228C>T and chr5:1,295,250C>T (termed C228T and C250T, respectively) in the gene for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) have been reported in various cancers and need to be further investigated in thyroid cancer. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to explore TERT promoter mutations in various thyroid tumors and(More)
Excessive production of triglyceride-rich VLDL is attributable to hypertriglyceridemia. VLDL production is facilitated by microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) in a rate-limiting step that is regulated by insulin. To characterize the underlying mechanism, we studied hepatic MTP regulation by forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), a transcription factor that(More)
FoxO1 plays an important role in mediating the effect of insulin on hepatic metabolism. Increased FoxO1 activity is associated with reduced ability of insulin to regulate hepatic glucose production. However, the underlying mechanism and physiology remain unknown. We studied the effect of FoxO1 on the ability of insulin to regulate hepatic metabolism in(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of drug injection among drug users, the seroprevalence of HIV and risk factors for HIV infection among injecting drug users (IDU), and to determine heterosexual transmission of HIV among IDU and their spouses in southwest China. METHODS Using a cross-sectional design, we conducted an HIV seroprevalence and behavioral(More)