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We previously demonstrated that the Groucho protein AES (amino-terminal enhancer of split) functions as a co-repressor of the AR (androgen receptor). It physically interacts with the N-terminal domain of AR and inhibits AR-driven transcription, but the molecular mechanism of its action remained unclear. In the present paper we report that the AES protein(More)
BACKGROUND The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the biological responses of androgens in the prostate gland. This study focuses on the chemopreventive agents, resveratrol and genistein, on AR-mediated transcription in prostate cancer cells. RESULTS We found that resveratrol and genistein activated AR-driven(More)
TGF (transforming growth factor)-beta1 is a multifunctional cytokine that influences homoeostatic processes of various tissues. TGF-beta1 expression is inhibited by androgens in the prostate gland, whereas its expression is enhanced by androgens in highly metastatic prostate cancer cells. Here, we examined regulation of human TGF-beta1 promoter activity by(More)
PRMT5 (protein arginine methyltransferase 5) is an enzyme that catalyses transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl methionine to the arginine residues of histones or non-histone proteins and is involved in a variety of cellular processes. Although it is highly expressed in some tumours, its direct role in cancer growth has not been fully investigated. In(More)
Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the action of androgens and is essential for the growth, function, and cell differentiation of the prostate gland. Here, we demonstrated that the prostate apoptosis response factor-4 (par-4) functions as a novel AR coactivator. Par-4 physically interacted with the DNA-binding(More)
The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates androgen functions by regulating the expression of genes it targets. In the present study, we mapped 2 regions in human transforming growth factor β1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 promoters that negatively regulated transcriptional activity in an androgen-dependent(More)
Androgens provide survival signals to prostate epithelial cells, and androgen ablation induces apoptosis in the prostate gland. However, the molecular mechanisms of actions of the androgen-signaling pathway in these processes are not fully understood. Here, we report that androgens induced expression of the cellular Fas/FasL-associated death domain(More)
The androgen receptor (AR) cofactor p44/WDR77, which regulates expression of a set of androgen target genes, is required for differentiation of prostate epithelium. Aberrant localization of p44/WDR77 in the cytoplasm is associated with prostate tumorigenesis. Here, we describe studies that used the mouse prostate and human prostate cancer cells as model(More)
Although it has been observed that various cofactors modulate activity of the androgen receptor (AR), the specific relationship between AR cofactors and prostate development and functions has not been well studied. To determine whether AR cofactor p44/WDR77 is important in prostate growth and development, we examined prostate architecture in p44/WDR77-null(More)
We previously reported that a novel WD-40 domain-containing protein, p44/WDR77, drives quiescent epithelial cells to re-enter the cell cycle and plays an essential role for growth of lung and prostate cancer cells. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling is important in the maintenance of non-transformed cells in the quiescent or slowly cycling(More)