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The shared genetic basis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) was explored by investigating the association of candidate risk factors in neurotransmitter genes with both disorders. One hundred seven methadone maintenance treatment patients, 36 having an ADHD diagnosis, 176 adult patients with ADHD without(More)
BACKGROUND Injecting drug use is an increasingly important cause of HIV transmission in most countries worldwide, especially in eastern Europe, South America, and east and southeast Asia. Among people actively injecting drugs, provision of clean needles and opioid substitution reduce HIV-transmission. However, former injecting drug users (fIDUs) are often(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Western countries is high and is associated with lower quality of life and reduces the effectiveness of treatment programs. The aim of this study is to provide a review about psychiatric comorbidity in IDUs in Asia and Africa, where HIV prevalence is high and(More)
BACKGROUND It remains unclear whether the natural course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) differs in subjects infected through injecting drug use (IDU) and no data have been published from low- or middle-income countries. We addressed this question in an urban cohort in Indonesia, which is experiencing a rapidly growing HIV epidemic strongly driven by(More)
BACKGROUND In many settings, people who inject drugs (PWID) have limited access to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care which is provided in several hospitals and primary health centers in big cities. Substance abuse treatment (SAT) can be used as the entry-point to HIV programs. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of the PWID who(More)
Background: It remains unclear whether the natural course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) differs in subjects infected through injecting drug use (IDU) and no data have been published from low-or middle-income countries. We addressed this question in an urban cohort in Indonesia, which is experiencing a rapidly growing HIV epidemic strongly driven by(More)
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