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The shared genetic basis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) was explored by investigating the association of candidate risk factors in neurotransmitter genes with both disorders. One hundred seven methadone maintenance treatment patients, 36 having an ADHD diagnosis, 176 adult patients with ADHD without(More)
AIM to know the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART) among methadone clients and patients who started ART outside the methadone program during the same period. METHODS uptake of HIV testing and treatment were evaluated in a cohort of IDUs starting MMT. Effectiveness of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) was compared with matched 175 HIV-patients(More)
Projections estimate 1,000,000 HIV infected by 2015 in Indonesia. Key behaviors to HIV prevention and care are determined by a complex set of individual/ environmental factors. This paper presents empirical data, local evidence and theoretical concepts to determine the role of social sciences in HIV prevention/care. Injecting Drug Use (IDU) is a social and(More)
BACKGROUND In many settings, people who inject drugs (PWID) have limited access to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care which is provided in several hospitals and primary health centers in big cities. Substance abuse treatment (SAT) can be used as the entry-point to HIV programs. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of the PWID who(More)
BACKGROUND Injecting drug use is an increasingly important cause of HIV transmission in most countries worldwide, especially in eastern Europe, South America, and east and southeast Asia. Among people actively injecting drugs, provision of clean needles and opioid substitution reduce HIV-transmission. However, former injecting drug users (fIDUs) are often(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Western countries is high and is associated with lower quality of life and reduces the effectiveness of treatment programs. The aim of this study is to provide a review about psychiatric comorbidity in IDUs in Asia and Africa, where HIV prevalence is high and(More)
BACKGROUND It remains unclear whether the natural course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) differs in subjects infected through injecting drug use (IDU) and no data have been published from low- or middle-income countries. We addressed this question in an urban cohort in Indonesia, which is experiencing a rapidly growing HIV epidemic strongly driven by(More)
BACKGROUND Over the past decade, addiction medicine training curricula have been developed to prepare physicians to work with substance use disorder patients. This review paper aimed at (1) summarizing scientific publications that outline the content of addiction medicine curricula and (2) evaluating the evidence for efficacy for training in addiction(More)
Background: It remains unclear whether the natural course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) differs in subjects infected through injecting drug use (IDU) and no data have been published from low-or middle-income countries. We addressed this question in an urban cohort in Indonesia, which is experiencing a rapidly growing HIV epidemic strongly driven by(More)