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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and members of their signaling pathway are important in the initiation of the innate immune response to a wide variety of pathogens. The adaptor protein Mal (also known as TIRAP), encoded by TIRAP (MIM 606252), mediates downstream signaling of TLR2 and TLR4 (refs. 4-6). We report a case-control study of 6,106 individuals from the(More)
BACKGROUND Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. No common genetic determinants of susceptibility have been defined. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key mediator of innate host immunity that activates the complement pathway and directly opsonises some infectious pathogens. Mutations in(More)
Malaria continues to claim the lives of more children worldwide than any other infectious disease, and improved understanding of disease immunology is a priority for the development of new therapeutic and vaccination strategies. FcgammaRIIa (CD32) contains a polymorphic variant (H/R131) that has been associated with variability in susceptibility to both(More)
RATIONALE Increasing evidence supports a key role for the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB in the host response to pneumococcal infection. Control of NF-kappaB activity is achieved through interactions with the IkappaB family of inhibitors, encoded by the genes NFKBIA, NFKBIB, and NFKBIE. Rare NFKBIA mutations cause immunodeficiency with(More)
Our understanding of the variation in individual clinical responses to pathogens has become increasingly relevant, particularly in the face of new emerging epidemics as well as the increasing number of multi-drug-resistant organisms. An effective immune response to infection has contributed to the development of host genetic diversity through selective(More)
L-ficolin is a pattern-recognition molecule which binds lipoteichoic acid and Gram-positive bacteria and activates the lectin pathway of complement. Five common functional polymorphisms have recently been identified in the FCN2 gene which encodes L-ficolin: three promoter polymorphisms (at positions -986, -602 and -4) which affect serum L-ficolin(More)
To investigate a putative link between genetically determined variations in Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and the occurrence of severe Staphylococcus aureus infection, the functional Arg753Gln single-nucleotide polymorphism and the GT repeat microsatellite in the TLR2 gene were examined in a large case-control study. No associations with disease or mortality(More)
Loss-of-function mutations in DOCK8 are linked to hyper-IgE syndrome. Patients typically present with recurrent sinopulmonary infections, severe cutaneous viral infections, food allergies and elevated serum IgE. Although patients may present with a spectrum of disease-related symptoms, molecular mechanisms explaining phenotypic variability in patients are(More)