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We report the development of an ultrasonic facial scanning technique that allows for the visualization of continuous contours without deforming surface tissues. Adhesive markers are placed on the face to enable measurement of facial tissue thicknesses at specific landmarks. The subject immerses the face in a clear plastic box filled with water for about 20(More)
  • S L Smith
  • 2000
Human distal pollical phalanx form has been associated with tool manufacture, and the broad tuft of this bone in Neanderthals has been suggested to be a climatic adaptation and/or an aid to a tremendously powerful grip. A wide first metacarpal head has also been proposed to be useful in distinguishing tool-dependent hominids from those less reliant on(More)
On the basis of the assumption that natural selection should tend to produce organisms optimally adapted to their environments, we consider optimality as a guiding concept for abstracting the behavior of aquatic microorganisms (plankton) to develop models to study and predict the behavior of planktonic organisms and communities. This is closely related to(More)
Although cranial and pelvic bones are the preferred skeletal material used by forensic anthropologists to assign unknown individuals to their most probable sex and population (racial) groups, these remains may be unavailable. This paper presents models for classification using metatarsals, proximal pedal phalanges, and the first distal phalanx of the foot.(More)
Forensic anthropologists assign sex and population group (race) to individuals on the basis of skeletal remains. While the most useful bones for these determinations are cranial and pelvic, these are not always available. The purpose of this paper is to provide models for classification using metacarpals and hand phalanges. Four samples of 40 individuals(More)
Knowledge of changes in soft tissue depths during growth and development is important in applied contexts of forensics and dentistry as well as in growth research. In forensics, applications include facial reproductions, video superimpositions, and child aging/progressions. Garlie and Saunders (1) recently published radiographic data from the Burlington(More)
It is well-established that when equilibrium is attained for two species competing for the same limiting resource in a stable, uniform environment, one species will eliminate the other due to competitive exclusion. While competitive exclusion is observed in laboratory experiments and ecological models, the phenomenon seems less common in nature, where(More)
Biodiversity is known to be an important determinant of ecosystem-level functions and processes. Although theories have been proposed to explain the generally positive relationship between, for example, biodiversity and productivity, it remains unclear which mechanisms underlie the observed variations in Biodiversity-Ecosystem Function (BEF) relationships.(More)
The skeleton of the Homo erectus boy from West Lake Turkana, Kenya (KNM-WT 15000), is remarkably complete, and this individual has thus provided a case study for several researchers examining Homo erectus growth. Using data from a longitudinal study of Montreal French-Canadian children, it is shown that while dental and skeletal ages match reasonably well(More)
  • S L Smith
  • 1995
In a study designed to complement morphological research on hominid hand bones, length and width measurements of the thumb, index, and middle rays were obtained from radiographs of modern human hands. These rays are primary in precision-gripping postures and are therefore the ones most relevant for investigating evolutionary changes in fine manipulation.(More)
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