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The genus Flavivirus, which contains approximately 70 single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses, represents a unique model for studying the evolution of vector-borne disease, as it includes viruses that are mosquito-borne, tick-borne or have no known vector. Both theoretical work and field studies suggest the existence of a large number of undiscovered(More)
Flaviviridae are small enveloped viruses hosting a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. Besides yellow fever virus, a landmark case in the history of virology, members of the Flavivirus genus, such as West Nile virus and dengue virus, are increasingly gaining attention due to their re-emergence and incidence in different areas of the world. Additional(More)
The genus Flavivirus contains approximately 70 single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that are mosquito-borne, tick-borne or have no known vector. Two discoveries support previous suggestions of the existence of a large number of unsampled flaviviruses: (i) a new flavivirus, Kamiti River virus, was recently isolated from Kenyan mosquitoes, and (ii)(More)
Flavivirus-related sequences have been discovered in the dsDNA genome of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, demonstrating for the first time an integration into a eukaryotic genome of a multigenic sequence from an RNA virus that replicates without a recognized DNA intermediate. In the Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell line, an open reading frame (ORF)(More)
We describe the isolation and characterization of an insect-specific flavivirus (ISF) from Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) mosquitoes collected in southern Portugal. The RNA genome of this virus, tentatively designated OCFVPT, for O. caspius flavivirus from Portugal, encodes a polyprotein showing all the features expected for a flavivirus. As frequently(More)
We investigated whether small RNA (sRNA) sequenced from field-collected mosquitoes and chironomids (Diptera) can be used as a proxy signature of viral prevalence within a range of species and viral groups, using sRNAs sequenced from wild-caught specimens, to inform total RNA deep sequencing of samples of particular interest. Using this strategy, we(More)
To generate the most diverse phylogenetic dataset for the flaviviruses to date, we determined the genomic sequences and phylogenetic relationships of 14 flaviviruses, of which 10 are primarily associated with Culex spp. mosquitoes. We analyze these data, in conjunction with a comprehensive collection of flavivirus genomes, to characterize flavivirus(More)
The genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) presently comprises around 70 single-strand positive-sense RNA viruses. These replicate in a range of vertebrate and invertebrate cells and may be mosquito-borne, tick-borne or have no-known-vector. Since transmission mode correlates strongly with phylogeny, the flaviviruses constitute a valuable model for the(More)
Vomeronasal receptors are the major receptors for pheromones in vertebrates, and five putative type 1 vomeronasal receptors (V1RL) have been identified in humans. The evolution of the V1RL1 gene in non-human primates, and patterns of selection on V1RL genes, were investigated. The presumed ortholog of V1RL1 was sequenced from 13 species of nonhuman primate,(More)
The genome sequences of new viruses often contain many "orphan" or "taxon-specific" proteins apparently lacking homologs. However, because viral proteins evolve very fast, commonly used sequence similarity detection methods such as BLAST may overlook homologs. We analyzed a data set of proteins from RNA viruses characterized as "genus specific" by BLAST.(More)