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Treated phenylketonuria (PKU) has been linked to dopaminergic depletion in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, potentially leading to selective executive impairment. White matter abnormalities may lead to generalized slowing of information processing. These 2 hypotheses were evaluated in adults with PKU on a lifelong diet. Those with PKU were significantly(More)
This article considers the scientific process whereby new and better clinical tests of executive function might be developed, and what form they might take. We argue that many of the traditional tests of executive function most commonly in use (e.g., the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; Stroop) are adaptations of procedures that emerged almost coincidentally(More)
Young people with Tourette's syndrome (TS) alone, TS plus attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (+ADHD), or TS plus obsessive-compulsive disorder (+OCD) were compared with a healthy control group on a set of measures of executive functioning, memory, and learning. The TS-alone group was impaired on one executive measure involving inhibition and strategy(More)
What are the factors that influence everyday attributions of cause and blame? The current studies focus on sequences of events that lead to adverse outcomes, and examine people's cause and blame ratings for key events in these sequences. Experiment 1 manipulated the intentional status of candidate causes and their location in a causal chain. Participants(More)
Major depression is associated with cognitive deficits including memory, executive functions, and affect perception, which have been linked to dysfunction of fronto-subcortical networks. However, little is known about social cognition on more complex socially relevant tasks, such as humor processing. In this investigation a computerized humor-processing(More)
The executive deficit hypothesis of treated phenylketonuria (PKU) suggests that dopaminergic depletion in the lateral prefrontal cortex leads to selective executive impairment. This was examined by comparing adults with PKU on a lifelong diet with a matched healthy control group. Those with PKU were impaired on selective and sustained attention, working(More)
BACKGROUND Phenylketonuria (PKU) is associated with dopaminergic depletion in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and abnormalities of myelination. Both mechanisms may lead to deficits in cognitive functioning. Studies of cognitive outcome in children treated with PKU at an early stage have suggested that there are benefits in remaining on diet into(More)
Participants with unilateral anterior or posterior lesions were compared to a healthy group on a theory of mind-type task that involved explaining the words or actions of story characters in a series of brief vignettes. Participants also carried out a set of non-social neuropsychological tests. Those with left anterior brain lesions (n=6) showed impairment(More)
Traditionally, implicit learning has been defined in terms of a lack of awareness of the process and products of learning. In the face of a number of conceptual and empirical difficulties with this definition, it has recently been suggested instead that the critical feature of implicit learning is that it proceeds without making any demands on attentional(More)
Exposure to a repeating sequence of target stimuli in a speeded localization task can support both priming of sequence-consistent responses and recognition of sequence components. In 3 experiments with both deterministic and probabilistic sequences, the authors used a novel procedure in which measures or priming and recognition were taken concurrently and(More)