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Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1(More)
With next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, one can interrogate a specific genomic region of interest at very high depth of coverage and identify less prevalent, rare mutations in heterogeneous clinical samples. However, the mutation detection levels are limited by the error rate of the sequencing technology as well as by the availability of(More)
BACKGROUND HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men. Whether HIV is an independent risk factor for CVD in women has not yet been established. METHODS AND RESULTS We analyzed data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study on 2187 women (32% HIV infected [HIV(+)]) who were free of CVD at baseline. Participants were(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical improvement in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is associated with a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has been presumed to indicate the mechanism of action of methotrexate and 6-MP. Although controversial, there are increasingly compelling data that Mycobacterium avium(More)
BACKGROUND Introduced in 1942, sulfasalazine (a conjugate of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and sulfapyridine) is the most prescribed medication used to treat "inflammatory" bowel disease (IBD.) Although controversial, there are increasingly compelling data that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) may be an etiological agent in some or all(More)
The Scalable City is a set of projects that explore the externalization of algorithmic approaches to urbanization that intersect with geographic, political, economic and aesthetic zones of conflict. Version 0.7a of the Scalable City is a multi-media exhibition consisting of various manifestations of landscape demarcation, personal embodiment and domicile(More)
BACKGROUND Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) may be zoonotic. Recently the "immuno-modulators" methotrexate, azathioprine and 6-MP and the "anti-inflammatory" 5-ASA have been shown to inhibit MAP growth in vitro. We concluded that their most plausible mechanism of action is as antiMAP antibiotics. The "immunosuppressants" Cyclosporine A,(More)
Artist Statement The Scalable City extrapolates the cultural condition arising from the interaction of users, data, and algorithms. As our world becomes characterized by this equation, we inhabit the artifacts of these relationships. The Scalable City is urban design as choreography of these artifacts. created by a process in which real-world data are(More)
OBJECTIVE Given conflicting data regarding the association of HIV infection and ischemic stroke risk, we sought to determine whether HIV infection conferred an increased ischemic stroke risk among male veterans. METHODS The Veterans Aging Cohort Study-Virtual Cohort consists of HIV-infected and uninfected veterans in care matched (1:2) for age, sex,(More)