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Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1(More)
IMPORTANCE Whether people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with uninfected people is not clear. Without demographically and behaviorally similar uninfected comparators and without uniformly measured clinical data on risk factors and fatal and nonfatal AMI events, any(More)
With next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, one can interrogate a specific genomic region of interest at very high depth of coverage and identify less prevalent, rare mutations in heterogeneous clinical samples. However, the mutation detection levels are limited by the error rate of the sequencing technology as well as by the availability of(More)
BACKGROUND Biomarkers of inflammation, altered coagulation, and monocyte activation are associated with mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population and among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people. We compared biomarkers for inflammation, altered coagulation, and monocyte activation between HIV-infected and uninfected(More)
BACKGROUND HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men. Whether HIV is an independent risk factor for CVD in women has not yet been established. METHODS AND RESULTS We analyzed data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study on 2187 women (32% HIV infected [HIV(+)]) who were free of CVD at baseline. Participants were(More)
BACKGROUND It is unclear whether the elevated rate of lung cancer among HIV-infected persons is due to biological effects of HIV, surveillance bias, or excess smoking. We compared the incidence of lung cancer between HIV-infected and demographically similar HIV-uninfected patients, accounting for smoking and stage of lung cancer at diagnosis. DESIGN Data(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical improvement in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is associated with a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has been presumed to indicate the mechanism of action of methotrexate and 6-MP. Although controversial, there are increasingly compelling data that Mycobacterium avium(More)
BACKGROUND Introduced in 1942, sulfasalazine (a conjugate of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and sulfapyridine) is the most prescribed medication used to treat "inflammatory" bowel disease (IBD.) Although controversial, there are increasingly compelling data that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) may be an etiological agent in some or all(More)
The Scalable City is a set of projects that explore the externalization of algorithmic approaches to urbanization that intersect with geographic, political, economic and aesthetic zones of conflict. Version 0.7a of the Scalable City is a multi-media exhibition consisting of various manifestations of landscape demarcation, personal embodiment and domicile(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have a high incidence of pneumonia and pneumococcal disease. Benefits of vaccination with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) among these patients continue to be debated. METHODS The impact of PPV vaccination on the incidence of pneumonia events (i.e., the composite of(More)