Shelby L. Steele

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While adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, possess ammonia and urea transporters (Rh and UT proteins, respectively) in a number of tissues, they are most heavily concentrated within the gills. UT has a diffuse expression pattern within Na+-K+-ATPase (NKA)-type mitochondrion-rich cells and Rh proteins form a network similar to the arrangement seen in pufferfish(More)
Human nutrient input has significantly altered dissolved oxygen (DO) cycles in coastal waters such that summertime hypoxia (DO <2 mg/L) and anoxia of bottom water are common worldwide. Prolonged hypoxia usually reduces metabolic rate in fish and potentially reduces reproduction, particularly in a spring and summer spawning species such as the Gulf(More)
Myogenin (Myog) is a muscle-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays an essential role in the specification and differentiation of myoblasts. The myogenin genes from the tiger pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes, and green-spotted pufferfish, Tetraodon nigroviridis, were cloned and a comparative genomic analysis performed. The gene encoding(More)
The objective of the present study was to characterize the capacity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to regulate whole body Na⁺ levels during exposure to acidic (pH 3.8-4.0) water. Exposure to acidic water significantly affected the mRNA levels of 14 claudin and two occludin isoforms, tight junction proteins thought to be involved in regulating paracellular(More)
Urea synthesis via the hepatic ornithine urea cycle (OUC) has been well described in elasmobranchs, but it is unknown whether OUC enzymes are also present in extrahepatic tissues. Muscle and liver urea, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), and other organic osmolytes, as well as selected OUC enzymes (carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III, ornithine transcarbamoylase,(More)
The marine gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) is an unusual teleost fish as it is able to switch between ammoniotelism and ureotelism in response to a variety of laboratory conditions. The present study integrates field work conducted in Biscayne and Florida Bays, USA with laboratory studies to examine ureotelism during the early life history stages of O. beta.(More)
The key strategy for coping with elevated brain ammonia levels in vertebrates is the synthesis of glutamine from ammonia and glutamate, catalyzed by glutamine synthetase (GSase). We hypothesized that all four GSase isoforms (Onmy-GS01-GS04) are expressed in the brain of the ammonia-intolerant rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and that cerebral GSase is(More)
Marine elasmobranchs retain relatively high levels of urea to counterbalance the osmotic strength of seawater. Oviparous species, such as the little skate Raja erinacea, release encapsulated embryos that hatch after about 9 months on the seafloor. To study the ureosmotic capability of skate embryos, we measured a variety of possible osmolytes and(More)
β-Adrenergic receptors (βARs) are crucial for maintaining the rate and force of cardiac muscle contraction in vertebrates. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have one β1AR gene and two β2AR genes (β2aAR and β2bAR). We examined the roles of these receptors in larval zebrafish in vivo by assessing the impact of translational gene knockdown on cardiac function. Zebrafish(More)
The present study investigated the role of ammonia as a trigger for hatching, mechanisms of ammonia detoxification and the localization of urea cycle enzymes in the early life stages of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The key urea cycle enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III was found exclusively in the embryonic body (non-hepatic(More)