Shelagh K. Malham

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Juvenile oysters Crassostrea gigas cultured in the Bay of Morlaix (France) have suffered unexplained summer mortalities for over a decade. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a bacterial pathogen could be responsible for this phenomenon. A first attempt failed to isolate a bacterial pathogen from moribund or weak oysters. Only(More)
Catecholamines and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides, some of the central regulators of the stress-response systems of vertebrates, are also present in invertebrates. However, studies are needed to determine how these hormones participate in the organisation of neuroendocrine stress-response axes in invertebrates. Our present work provides(More)
Antiprotease and lysozyme activities were detected in various tissue samples including the haemocytes and haemolymph of Eledone cirrhosa. Injection of live Vibrio anguillarum caused an increase in lysozyme activity in the branchial heart over 48 hours and a decrease in the lysozyme activity of haemocytes over 24 hours. Haemocytes from control PBS injected(More)
Stress is thought to cause increased disease outbreaks and mortality in a number of invertebrates but currently very little information is available on mechanisms linking physiological states of stress and reduced disease resistance in these organisms. In the present study, we examined the possibility that stress alters immune functions, the principal line(More)
The stress response is a series of coordinated physiological reactions increasing an organism's capacity to maintain homeostasis in the presence of threatening agents. This fundamental process is known to involve hormonal signaling to rapidly modulate key physiological functions in vertebrates, but data are lacking concerning neuroendocrine responses to(More)
Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis(More)
AIMS The aim of this study was to determine if domestic cooking practices can reduce concentrations of norovirus (NoV) and F-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophage in experimentally contaminated mussels. METHODS AND RESULTS Mussels (n = 600) contaminated with NoV and FRNA bacteriophage underwent four different cooking experiments performed in triplicate at(More)
Catecholamines (CA) regulate several physiological processes in molluscs. Experiments have been conducted to determine the effects of noradrenaline (NA), the principal CA circulating in bivalve hemolymph, on oyster hemocytephagocytosis. Results show that NA had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on phagocytosis at physiological concentrations of 0.1 microM(More)
Information concerning the effect of stress on invertebrate immune functions are scarce. The present study investigated the consequences of a 15-min mechanical disturbance on immune parameters in oysters Crassostrea gigas. As indicated by noradrenaline and dopamine measurements, the mechanical disturbance caused a transient state of stress in oysters. The(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Qualitative CT perfusion (CTP) assessment by using the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) allows rapid calculation of infarct extent for middle cerebral artery infarcts. Published thresholds exist for noncontrast CT (NCCT) ASPECTS, which may distinguish outcome/complication risk, but early ischemic signs are difficult to(More)