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The pathophysiological functions of proline-glutamic acid (PE)/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) family of proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that one of the PPE proteins, PPE18 can stimulate macrophages to secrete IL-10, known to favor a Th2 type response. The recombinant PPE18 was found to(More)
Human triosephosphate isomerase (hTIM), a dimeric enzyme, was altered by site-directed mutagenesis in order to determine whether it can be dissociated into monomers. Two hTIM mutants were produced, in which a glutamine residue was substituted for either Met14 or Arg98, both of which are interface residuces. These substitutions strongly interfere with TIM(More)
The possible role of the central beta-domain (residues 151-287) of streptokinase (SK) was probed by site-specifically altering two charged residues at a time to alanines in a region (residues 230-290) previously identified by Peptide Walking to play a key role in plasminogen (PG) activation. These mutants were then screened for altered ability to activate(More)
Dimeric hemoglobin (VHb) from the bacterium Vitreoscilla sp. strain C1 displays 30 to 53% sequence identity with the heme-binding domain of flavohemoglobins (flavoHbs) and exhibits the presence of potential sites for the interaction with its FAD/NADH reductase partner. The intersubunit contact region of VHb indicates a small interface between two monomers(More)
Human triosephosphate isomerase (hTIM) is a dimeric enzyme of identical subunits, adopting the alpha/beta-barrel fold. In a previous work, a monomeric mutant of hTIM was engineered in which Met14 and Arg98, two interface residues, were changed to glutamine. Analysis of equilibrium denaturation of this monomeric mutant, named M14Q/R98Q, revealed that its(More)
Chaperonin-60s are large double ring oligomeric proteins with a central cavity where unfolded polypeptides undergo productive folding. In conjunction with their co-chaperonin, Chaperonin-60s bind non-native polypeptides and facilitate their refolding in an ATP-dependent manner. The ATPase activity of Chaperonin-60 is tightly regulated by the 10 kDa(More)
Chorismate mutase catalyzes the first committed step toward the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine and tyrosine. While this biosynthetic pathway exists exclusively in the cell cytoplasm, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme has been shown to be secreted into the extracellular medium. The secretory nature of the enzyme and its existence(More)
Toxin-antitoxin modules are present on chromosomes of almost all free-living prokaryotes. Some are implicated to act as stress-responsive elements, among their many functional roles. The YefM-YoeB toxin-antitoxin system is present in many bacterial species, where YefM belongs to the Phd family antidote of phage P1, whereas YoeB is a homolog of the RelE(More)
The distinctive feature of the GroES-GroEL chaperonin system in mediating protein folding lies in its ability to exist in a tetradecameric state, form a central cavity, and encapsulate the substrate via the GroES lid. However, recombinant GroELs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are unable to act as effective molecular chaperones when expressed in Escherichia(More)
Members of the chaperonin-10 (cpn10) protein family, also called heat shock protein 10 and in Escherichia coli GroES, play an important role in ensuring the proper folding of many proteins. The crystal structure of the Mycobacterium leprae cpn10 (Ml-cpn10) oligomer has been elucidated at a resolution of 3.5 angstroms. The architecture of the Ml-cpn10(More)