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Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) are 2 similar diseases characterized by a cytokine storm, overwhelming inflammation, multiorgan dysfunction, and death. Animal models of HLH suggest that disease is driven by IFN-γ produced by CD8⁺ lymphocytes stimulated by persistent antigen exposure. In these models and(More)
During the eighties, heads of NARS and the IARCs operating in the region expressed concern at the decline in productivity in the highlands of Eastern and Central Africa in spite of adequate rainfall and relatively heavy investment in research and extension. This situation was generally attributed to inability of the farmers to invest adequately on(More)
Cells from three different human neuroblastoma cell lines and normal human bone marrow cells were exposed to the lipophilic fluorescent dye, merocyanine 540 (MC 540), and white light. In vitro clonogenic tumor cells were inactivated up to 25,000 times more rapidly than multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells (CFU-GEMM). It is conceivable that this(More)
Pattern recognition receptors expressed by cells of the innate immune system initiate the immune response upon recognition of microbial products. Activation of pattern recognition receptors result in the production and release of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNFα and IL-6. Because these cytokines promote disparate effector cell responses,(More)
Cytokine storm syndromes, such as familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL), are lethal disorders caused by uncontrolled, systemic immune activation. In the murine model of FHL, in which perforin-deficient (Prf1(-/-)) mice are infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), disease is driven by overabundant interferon (IFN)γ-producing(More)
Purpose Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS, alternatively known as secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)) is a potentially life-threatening complication of many rheumatologic, infectious, and malignant diseases. It is characterized by the acute onset of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and multi-system organ dysfunction in the setting(More)
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