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This study examines forms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala in vitro and demonstrates that a brief high frequency stimulus (HFS) train can induce a switch in the direction of the enduring change in synaptic strength induced by subsequent low-frequency stimulation (LFS). LFS (1 Hz, 15 min) of the external capsule (EC)(More)
1. If the eyes of young chickens are deprived of clear vision by translucent occluders, they develop considerable amounts of axial myopia within days. At the same time, the day time retinal dopamine levels drop by about 30%. Because the retinal dopamine levels of normally sighted chicks also differ diurnally and are low at night, we expected that the rate(More)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a promising therapeutic intervention in the treatment of affective disorders. The differences in the type of electrical stimulation required for therapeutic efficacy by rTMS and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are discussed. In contrast to ECT, rTMS would not appear to require the generation(More)
It is apparent that stimuli associated with psychomotor stimulants as well as opiates acquire the ability to elicit motor behaviors that probably reflect the acquisition and operation of incentive motivational processes. Such conditioning also appears to be a critical determinant of behavioral sensitization seen with repetitive administration of these(More)
Cocaine can induce manic syndromes ranging from mild hypomania to severe dysphoric and psychotic mania, in part depending on the number and duration of drug administrations. Repeated cocaine administration in animals results in increased motor (behavioral sensitization) and convulsive (pharmacologic kindling) responses. Study of these progressive syndromes(More)
Because results from animal models demonstrate that retinal image defocus is a crucial factor in the visual control of eye growth, we have measured the precision of accommodation during reading at 1 m and at 30 cm distance. A newly developed photorefractor was used to sample both the refraction in the vertical meridian and direction of gaze at 25 Hz. Using(More)
Chronic carbamazepine treatment for a period of 2 weeks caused a highly significant increase in brain adenosine receptors in the rat. The carbamazepine was administered in food pellets in a diet that achieved clinically relevant total plasma concentrations of carbamazepine and its active-10,11-epoxide metabolite. Of the several brain areas examined, the(More)
PURPOSE To achieve clinical validation of cutoff values for newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry through a worldwide collaborative effort. METHODS Cumulative percentiles of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots of approximately 25–30 million normal newborns and 10,742 deidentified true positive cases are compared to assign clinical(More)
Weight gain is an undesirable side-effect of long-term lithium administration which notably interferes with treatment compliance. The mechanisms of this weight gain remain unclear, making its management in patients difficult. In this paper, studies describing the features of this weight gain in patients and in rats treated with chronic lithium(More)
Forty-eight patients with panic disorder completing 8 months of maintenance treatment with alprazolam (mean dose, 5.2 mg [n = 27]), imipramine hydrochloride (mean dose, 175 mg [n = 11]), or placebo (mean dose, 8.0 pills [n = 10]) underwent a gradual taper from medication over a 4-week period. A withdrawal syndrome was observed in almost all(More)