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This study examined localization of positive versus negative motivational functions mediated by GABA circuits within the accumbens shell. Microinjections of a GABA(A) agonist (0, 25, 75, and 225 ng/0.5 microl muscimol) in rostral shell sites elicited appetitive increases in eating behavior. In contrast, microinjections in caudal shell sites elicited(More)
Microinjection of the GABA(A) agonist muscimol in the rostral medial accumbens shell in rats elicits appetitive eating behavior, but in the caudal shell instead elicits fearful defensive treading behavior. To further test the hypothesis that rostral shell muscimol microinjections produce positive motivational states, whereas caudal shell muscimol produces(More)
The nucleus accumbens mediates both appetitive motivation for rewards and fearful motivation toward threats, which are generated in part by glutamate-related circuits organized in a keyboard fashion. At rostral sites of the medial shell, localized glutamate disruptions typically generate intense appetitive behaviors in rats, but the disruption incrementally(More)
Hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been successfully applied to the tasks of transmembrane protein topology prediction and signal peptide prediction. In this paper we expand upon this work by making use of the more powerful class of dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). Our model, Philius, is inspired by a previously published HMM, Phobius, and combines a signal(More)
This study demonstrates that microinjection of an AMPA/kainate glutamate antagonist elicits motivated fear and feeding behaviour mapped along rostrocaudal gradients of positive-to-negative valence in nucleus accumbens shell (similar to rostrocaudal shell gradients recently reported for GABA agonist microinjections). Rats received rostral or caudal(More)
An important issue in affective neuroscience concerns the role of mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems in positive-valenced motivation (e.g., reward) versus negative-valenced motivation (e.g., fear). Here, we assessed whether endogenous dopamine receptor stimulation in nucleus accumbens contributes to both appetitive behavior and fearful behavior that is(More)
Neurotensin exerts complex effects on the mesolimbic dopamine system that alter motivation and contribute to neuroadaptations associated with psychostimulant drug administration. Activation of abundant neurotensin receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) enhances dopamine neuron activity and associated release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (Acb)(More)
The fundamental building block of chromatin, the nucleosome, occupies 150 bp of DNA in a spaced arrangement that is a primary determinant in regulation of the genome. The nucleosomal organization of some regions of the human genome has been described, but mapping of these regions has been limited to a few kilobases. We have explored two independent and(More)
—The potential for diff erences between genetic paternity and paternity inferred from behavioral observation has long been recognized. These diff erences are associated with the challenge for females of seeking both genetic and material benefi ts; this challenge is less severe in species with polygynous, non-resource-based mating systems (such as leks) than(More)
We present a part-of-speech tagger which introduces two new concepts: virtual evidence in the form of an " observed child " node, and negative training data to learn the conditional probabilities for the observed child. Associated with each word is a flexible feature-set which can include binary flags, neighboring words, etc. The conditional probability of(More)