Sheila M. Ebert

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In the mid 1970s, UMTRI investigated the biomechanical properties of the head and neck using 180 "normal" adult subjects selected to fill eighteen subject groups based on age (young, mid-aged, older), gender, and stature (short, medium, and tall by gender). Lateral-view radiographs of the subjects' cervical spines and heads were taken with the subjects(More)
A laboratory study of posture and belt fit was conducted with 46 men and 51 women, 61% of whom were age 60 years or older and 32% age 70 years or older. In addition, 28% of the 97 participants were obese, defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m^2. A mockup of a passenger vehicle driver's station was created and five belt anchorage configurations were produced(More)
Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study(More)
This study examined how child restraint system (CRS) features contribute to CRS installation errors. Sixteen convertible CRS, selected to include a wide range of features, were used in volunteer testing with 32 subjects. Subjects were recruited based on their education level (high or low) and experience with installing CRS (none or experienced). Each(More)
We present a new method for rapidly measuring child body shapes from noisy, incomplete data captured from low-cost depth cameras. This method fits the data using a statistical body shape model (SBSM) to find a complete avatar in the realistic body shape space. The method also predicts a set of standard anthropometric data for a specific subject without(More)
BACKGROUND Previously published statistical models of driving posture have been effective for vehicle design but have not taken into account the effects of age. OBJECTIVE The present study developed new statistical models for predicting driving posture. METHODS Driving postures of 90 U.S. drivers with a wide range of age and body size were measured in(More)
OBJECTIVE A series of sled tests was performed using vehicle seats and Hybrid-III 6-year-old (6YO) and 10YO anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) to explore possibilities for improving occupant protection for children who are not using belt-positioning booster seats. METHODS Cushion length was varied from production length of 450 mm to a shorter length of(More)
OBJECTIVE The shape of the current physical and computational surrogates of children used for restraint system assessments is based largely on standard anthropometric dimensions. These scalar dimensions provide valuable information on the overall size of the individual but do not provide good guidance on shape or posture. This study introduced the(More)
Digital human figure models are a useful tool for simulation of driver ingress and egress for passenger cars, light trucks, and heavy commercial trucks. Simulation allows evaluation of the suitability of steps and handholds as a system. Accurate simulation requires detailed, validated algorithms to predict driver motions. One critical component of such an(More)
Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven(More)