Learn More
Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMphi) are primarily associated with the chronic stages of parasitic infections and the development of a polarized Th2 response. We have shown that Fasciola hepatica infection of BALB/c mice induces a polarized Th2 response during both the latent and chronic stage of disease. The activation status of macrophages was(More)
Over the last decade a significant number of studies have highlighted the central role of host antimicrobial (or defence) peptides in modulating the response of innate immune cells to pathogen-associated ligands. In humans, the most widely studied antimicrobial peptide is LL-37, a 37-residue peptide containing an amphipathic helix that is released via(More)
Fasciola hepatica secretes cathepsin L proteases that facilitate the penetration of the parasite through the tissues of its host, and also participate in functions such as feeding and immune evasion. The major proteases, cathepsin L1 (FheCL1) and cathepsin L2 (FheCL2) are members of a lineage that gave rise to the human cathepsin Ls, Ks and Ss, but while(More)
To infect their mammalian hosts, Fasciola hepatica larvae must penetrate and traverse the intestinal wall of the duodenum, move through the peritoneum, and penetrate the liver. After migrating through and feeding on the liver, causing extensive tissue damage, the parasites move to their final niche in the bile ducts where they mature and produce eggs. Here(More)
The secretion and activation of the major cathepsin L1 cysteine protease involved in the virulence of the helminth pathogen Fasciola hepatica was investigated. Only the fully processed and active mature enzyme can be detected in medium in which adult F. hepatica are cultured. However, immunocytochemical studies revealed that the inactive procathepsin L1 is(More)
An array of schistosome endoproteases involved in the digestion of host hemoglobin to absorbable peptides has been described, but the exoprotease responsible for catabolising these peptides to amino acids has yet to be identified. By searching the public databases we found that Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum express a gene encoding a member(More)
The control of helminth diseases of people and livestock continues to rely on the widespread use of anti-helminthic drugs. However, concerns with the appearance of drug resistant parasites and the presence of pesticide residues in food and the environment, has given further incentive to the goal of discovering molecular vaccines against these pathogens. The(More)
Parasitic worms (helminths) reside in their mammalian hosts for many years. This is attributable, in part, to their ability to skew the host's immune system away from pro-inflammatory responses and towards anti-inflammatory or regulatory responses. This immune modulatory ability ensures helminth longevity within the host, while simultaneously minimises(More)
The helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica secretes cathepsin L cysteine proteases to invade its host, migrate through tissues and digest haemoglobin, its main source of amino acids. Here we investigated the importance of pH in regulating the activity and functions of the major cathepsin L protease FheCL1. The slightly acidic pH of the parasite gut facilitates(More)