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The RV144 vaccine trial in Thailand demonstrated that an HIV vaccine could prevent infection in humans and highlights the importance of understanding protective immunity against HIV. We used a nonhuman primate model to define immune and genetic mechanisms of protection against mucosal infection by the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). A plasmid DNA(More)
The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of DNA and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) prime-boost regimes were assessed by using either thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (TRAP) with a multiple-epitope string ME (ME-TRAP) or the circumsporozoite protein (CS) of Plasmodium falciparum. Sixteen healthy subjects who never had malaria (malaria-naive(More)
Protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on the generation of a T(H)1-type cellular immune response, characterized by the secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) from antigen-specific T cells. The induction of potent cellular immune responses by vaccination in humans has proven difficult. Recombinant viral vectors, especially(More)
Immunological memory is a required component of protective antimalarial responses raised by T cell-inducing vaccines. The magnitude of ex vivo IFN-gamma T cell responses is widely used to identify immunogenic vaccines although this response usually wanes and may disappear within weeks. However, protection in the field is likely to depend on durable central(More)
ICC-1132, a recombinant virus-like particle comprising of a modified hepatitis B core protein with a B cell (NANP) and two T cell epitopes of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP), was administered i.m. as a single 50 microg dose in Seppic ISA 720 to 11 volunteers. Local reactogenicity and systemic side effects were acceptable with the(More)
Sema4D, also known as CD100, is a constitutively expressed immune semaphorin on T cells and NK cells. CD100 has important immune regulatory functions that improve antigen-specific priming by antigen-presenting cells, and can also act as a costimulatory molecule on T cells. We investigated the consequence of HIV-1 infection on CD100 expression by T cells,(More)
BACKGROUND Polysaccharide conjugate vaccines prime for lasting memory responses in children and young adults. The potential value of these vaccines in the elderly is unclear. METHODS We compared the frequency of circulating pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PPS) specific IgG, IgA and IgM plasma and memory cells by cultured ELISpot and supernatant(More)
In young children, polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been shown to offer advantage over plain polysaccharide vaccines (PPVs) in both immunogenicity and priming for memory responses. In the elderly, the potential benefit of conjugate vaccines is unclear. Here, we explore the early kinetics of serum antibody and circulating(More)
Chronic infection by HIV increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The mechanisms linking HIV to CVD have yet to be fully elucidated. High plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, which may be triggered by IL-1β, is a biomarker of CVD risk in HIV-negative adults, and of all-cause mortality(More)
BACKGROUND The long-term impact of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reservoirs in patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is largely unknown. METHODS We studied the effects of a reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic HSCT from donors with wild-type-CCR5(+)(More)