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—Over the past few years, many black-hat marketplaces have emerged that facilitate access to reputation manipulation services such as fake Facebook likes, fraudulent search engine optimization (SEO), or bogus Amazon reviews. In order to deploy effective technical and legal countermeasures, it is important to understand how these black-hat marketplaces(More)
Online social media allows consumers to engage with each other and to create, share, discuss and modify user-generated content in a highly interactive way. Social media platforms have therefore become critical for companies trying to gauge the pulse of consumers, help identify issues faster, receive immediate feedback on products and offering etc. An(More)
As businesses increasingly rely on social networking sites to engage with their customers, it is crucial to understand and counter reputation manipulation activities, including fraudulently boosting the number of Facebook page likes using so-called like farms. Thus, social network operators have started to deploy various fraud detection algorithms such as(More)
Online social networks offer convenient ways to seamlessly reach out to large audiences. In particular, Facebook pages are increasingly used by businesses, brands, and organizations to connect with multitudes of users worldwide. As the number of likes of a page has become a de-facto measure of its popularity and profitability, an underground market of(More)
Auto-surf and manual-surf traffic exchanges are an increasingly popular way of artificially generating website traffic. Previous research in this area has focused on the makeup, usage, and monetization of underground traffic exchanges. In this paper, we analyze the role of traffic exchanges as a vector for malware propagation. We conduct a measurement study(More)
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