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The proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BAD resides in a glucokinase-containing complex that regulates glucose-driven mitochondrial respiration. Here, we present genetic evidence of a physiologic role for BAD in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by beta cells. This novel function of BAD is specifically dependent upon the phosphorylation of its BH3 sequence,(More)
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC)2 is a key regulator of mitochondrial fat oxidation. To examine the impact of ACC2 deletion on whole-body energy metabolism, we measured changes in substrate oxidation and total energy expenditure in Acc2(-/-) and WT control mice fed either regular or high-fat diets. To determine insulin action in vivo, we also measured(More)
OBJECTIVE White adipose tissue is a critical regulator of whole-body glucose metabolism. Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) is a secreted protein that inhibits adipocyte differentiation, both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we have investigated the effects of Pref-1 overexpression on whole-body glucose homeostasis and its contribution to the development of(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha has been shown to play critical roles in regulating mitochondria biogenesis, respiration, and muscle oxidative phenotype. Furthermore, reductions in the expression of PGC-1alpha in muscle have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. To determine the effect of increased(More)
Insulin resistance is a major factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and is strongly associated with obesity. Increased concentrations of intracellular fatty acid metabolites have been postulated to interfere with insulin signaling by activation of a serine kinase cascade involving PKCtheta in skeletal muscle. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) has been(More)
The transcriptional coactivator PPARgamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a strong activator of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. While expression of PGC-1alpha and many of its mitochondrial target genes are decreased in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes, no causal relationship between decreased PGC-1alpha expression(More)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major contributing factor to hepatic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (Dgat), of which there are two isoforms (Dgat1 and Dgat2), catalyzes the final step in triglyceride synthesis. We evaluated the metabolic impact of pharmacological reduction of DGAT1 and -2 expression in(More)
Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are major global health problems. Insulin resistance is frequently present in these disorders, but the causes and effects of such resistance are unknown. Here, we generated mice with muscle-specific knockout of the major murine atypical PKC (aPKC), PKC-lambda, a postulated mediator for(More)
The homeostatic balance of hepatic glucose utilization, storage, and production is exquisitely controlled by hormonal signals and hepatic carbon metabolism during fed and fasted states. How the liver senses extracellular glucose to cue glucose utilization versus production is not fully understood. We show that the physiologic balance of hepatic glycolysis(More)