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OBJECTIVE Nicotine is a highly addictive substance, and cigarette smoking is a major cause of premature death among humans. Little is known about the neuropharmacology and sites of action of nicotine in the human brain. Such knowledge might help in the development of new behavioral and pharmacological therapies to aid in treating nicotine dependence and to(More)
Cocaine is a powerful psychostimulant the high abuse liability of which in man appears to be linked, at least in part, to its pharmacokinetic properties. For example, intravenous and inhalation routes of administration result in appreciably higher level of dependence than either the oral or intranasal route, while cocaine's behavioral and physiologic(More)
Twelve neurologically normal participants (4 men and 8 women) performed semantic, phonological, and orthographic working memory tasks and a control task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Divergent regions of the posterior left hemisphere used for decoding and storage of information emerged in each working memory versus control task comparison.(More)
1. Arachidonylethanolamide (AEA; anandamide) has been isolated from mammalian brain and found to bind to, and is thought to be, an endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptor. In order to understand better its behavioural and physiological properties, we have examined its acute effects in unanaesthetized freely behaving rats. 2. Intravenous AEA caused(More)
Cocaine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant whose primary mechanism of action is reuptake inhibition of the monoamines at presynaptic transporter sites. Drug-induced stereotypic motor effects may be due to actions within the dorsal striatum and associated structures while reinforcing properties have been attributed to action in the ventral(More)
Mu and kappa opioid agonists are known to produce different, and sometimes opposite, effects on several pharmacological and behavioral measures. However, whether kappa agonists can be used to antagonize the reinforcing and putative dopamine (DA)-releasing properties of a mu agonist such as heroin is unclear. With the use of the high temporal and spatial(More)
A specific receptor for cannabinoids has been characterized at the pharmacological, molecular, and neuroanatomical level. However, less is known of the functional localization in the brain for the behavioral and physiological actions of these drugs. We have examined the effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its active metabolite 11-OH-THC on(More)
Recent biochemical data suggest that arachidonylethanolamide (AEA; anandamide) may be an endogenous ligand for brain cannabinoid receptors. The functional neuronal consequences of AEA binding to cannabinoid receptors are only poorly understood. Using regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as an indirect marker of neuronal activity, acute AEA administration(More)
As the applications of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) expand, there is a need for the development of new strategies for data extraction and analysis that do not require the presentation of stimuli in a repeated on/off pattern. A description and evaluation of a method and computer algorithm for the detection and analysis of brain activation(More)
The widespread, heterogeneous distribution of opiate receptors and their endogenous ligands in the nervous system are reflective of the variety of central and systemic effects seen after opiate administration. Most neurons respond to either systemic or local opiate application with a decrease in firing rate, although increased neuronal activity has also(More)