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Phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signaling, which plays a central role in cell-cell and cell-environment interactions, has been considered to be an evolutionary innovation in multicellular metazoans. However, neither the emergence nor the evolution of the human pTyr signaling system is currently understood. Tyrosine kinase (TK) circuits, each of which consists of a(More)
Lysine methylation occurs on both histone and nonhistone proteins. However, our knowledge on the prevalence and function of nonhistone protein methylation is poor. We describe an approach that combines peptide array, bioinformatics, and mass spectrometry to systematically identify lysine methylation sites and map methyllysine-driven protein-protein(More)
Lysine propionylation and butyrylation are protein modifications that were recently identified in histones. The molecular components involved in the two protein modification pathways are unknown, hindering further functional studies. Here we report identification of the first three in vivo non-histone protein substrates of lysine propionylation in(More)
The X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) syndrome gene encodes a protein named SAP or SH2D1A that is composed of a single Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Two models have been proposed for its function in lymphocyte signaling. One postulates that it acts as an inhibitor of interactions between the phosphatase SHP-2 and the immune receptor SLAM. The other suggests(More)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which can be caused by aberrant tyrosine kinase signalling, marks epithelial tumour progression and metastasis, yet the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we report that Numb interacts with E-cadherin (E-cad) through its phosphotyrosine-binding domain (PTB) and thereby regulates the(More)
Transit of proteins through the endosomal organelle following endocytosis is critical for regulating the homeostasis of cell-surface proteins and controlling signal transduction pathways. However, the mechanisms that control these membrane-transport processes are poorly understood. The Phox-homology (PX) domain-containing proteins sorting nexin (SNX) 17,(More)
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6 (IGFBP-6) is a growth inhibitory protein that regulates the availability of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). We recently reported that IGFBP-6 exerts intracellular actions via its translocation to the nucleus. We now show that IGFBP-6 co-purifies by tandem-affinity with nuclear proteins involved in DNA(More)
The ubiquitin-binding zinc finger (UBZ) domain of human DNA Y-family polymerase (pol) eta is important in the recruitment of the polymerase to the stalled replication machinery in translesion synthesis. Here, we report the solution structure of the pol eta UBZ domain and its interaction with ubiquitin. We show that the UBZ domain adopts a classical C(2)H(2)(More)
Intricate networks of protein kinases are intimately involved in the regulation of cellular events related to cell proliferation and survival. In addition to protein kinases, cells also contain networks of proteases including aspartic-acid directed caspases organized in cascades that play a major role in the regulation of cell survival through their(More)
Protein kinase CK2 exhibits oncogenic activity in mice and is over-expressed in a number of tumors or leukemic cells. On the basis of its amino acid sequence and a wealth of experimental information, CK2 has traditionally been classified as a protein serine/threonine kinase. In contrast to this traditional view of CK2, recent evidence has shown that CK2 can(More)