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Extension of the proboscis was conditioned in restrained honeybees with odor as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and sucrose solution--delivered to the antenna (to elicit extension of the proboscis) and then to the proboscis itself--as the unconditioned stimulus (US). In a first series of experiments, acquisition was found to be very rapid, both in massed and(More)
The distribution of GABA-like immunoreactivity in the brain of the honeybee was investigated with antisera generated against GABA protein conjugates. The binding of the antisera in paraffin serial sections was studied with the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. GABA-like immunoreactive fibers appeared in all main neuropile areas. The staining of the optic(More)
The distribution of dopamine in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion of the honeybee Apis mellifera was investigated by means of immunocytochemistry with a well-characterized antiserum against dopamine. The binding of the antiserum in paraffin serial sections was studied with the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Dopamine-like immunoreactive neurons are(More)
The mushroom bodies have been suggested to be essentially involved in learning and memory in insects. In the honeybee Apis mellifera they are composed of about 340,000 intrinsic elements, called Kenyon cells, which can be easily separated from all other neurons of the brain. Here we describe a preparation in which we studied ionic currents in the isolated(More)
Glutamate is considered to be the most likely transmitter candidate at excitatory synapses onto skeletal muscles of insects. We investigated the distribution of glutamate-like immunoreactivity (Glu-LI) in identified motor neurons of glutaraldehyde-fixed metathoracic ganglia of the locust in paraffin serial sections. The presumably glutamatergic fast and(More)
Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is one of the most abundant free amino acids in the insect central nervous system. We have investigated the distribution of taurine-like immunoreactivity in the brain of the honeybee with an antiserum recognizing fixed taurine. Taurine-like immunoreactivity appeared within neuronal perikarya, neurites, and terminals,(More)
We have studied proliferation and programmed cell death in the brain of the honeybee during metamorphosis. DNA fragmentation detection using the TUNEL method combined with 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation experiments reveal that in the mushroom bodies neurogenesis is terminated by extensive apoptosis. Proliferation of mushroom body neuroblasts is active(More)
The distribution of the transmitter substance GABA was investigated in the mushroom body neuropile of the honeybee by means of immunohistochemistry. The protocerebro-calycal tract (PCT) links a mushroom body output area with the calycal input sites. Interneurones contained within the PCT exhibit GABA-like immunoreactivity and may function as negative(More)
Immunocytochemical analysis of the brain and suboesophageal ganglion of the honeybee Apis mellifera L. was combined with Lucifer Yellow backfilling from the corpora cardiaca and intracellular staining of single neurons. It is shown that more than one third of the cells that display FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity (F-LI) project to the corpora cardiaca,(More)
The visual system of the honeybee contains gamma-aminobutyric acid-(GABA)-like and 5-hydroxytryptamine-(5-HT)-like immunoreactive tangential fibers of similar morphology. These tangential fibers belong to two different cell types, as revealed by a double labelling procedure on the same section with GABA- and 5-HT-antisera, raised in different animals. The(More)