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It is well established that the activity of chromatin-modifying enzymes is crucial for regulating gene expression associated with hippocampal-dependent memories. However, very little is known about how these epigenetic mechanisms influence the formation of cortically dependent memory, particularly when there is competition between opposing memory traces,(More)
Responses of a holothurian smooth muscle to a range of muscarinic (M(1) to M(5)) acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonists and antagonists were surveyed using calcium (Ca(2+))-selective electrodes and a mechanical recording technique. Most of the mAChR agonists and antagonists tested increased both contractility and net Ca(2+) efflux, with M(1)-specific(More)
Microarrays have been used to simultaneously monitor the expression of thousands of genes from biological samples, an approach that can potentially uncover previously unrecognized functions of genes. Microarray analyses can rarely be conducted retrospectively because of the requirement for RNA to be obtained from fresh or unfixed frozen tissues. Archived(More)
Nicotine leads to both activation and desensitization (inactivation) of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). This study tested the hypothesis that nicotine and a selective antagonist of β2*nAChRs would have similar effects on affective behavior. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were tested in a conditioned emotional response (CER) assay which evaluates the(More)
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors are critical for lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid organs, and S1P receptor modulators suppress lymphocyte circulation. However, the role of S1P receptors on monocytes is less clear. To elucidate this, we systematically evaluated monocytes in rats and mice, both in naive and inflammatory conditions, with S1P(More)
BACKGROUND Ambient air pollution may have neurotoxic effects in children. Data examining associations between traffic-related air pollution and attention domains remain sparse. OBJECTIVES We examined associations between black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic particles, and attention measures ascertained at 7-14 years of age among 174 children in a birth(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Nicotine dose-dependently activates or preferentially desensitizes β2 subunit containing nicotinic ACh receptors (β2*nAChRs). Genetic and pharmacological manipulations assessed effects of stimulation versus inhibition of β2*nAChRs on nicotine-associated anxiety-like phenotype. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Using a range of doses of nicotine(More)
Inflammation is associated with immune cells infiltrating into the inflammatory site and pain. CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) mediates trafficking of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. However, the contribution of CCR1 to pain is incompletely understood. Here we report an unexpected discovery that CCR1-mediated trafficking of neutrophils and CCR1 activity(More)
The effects of carbamazepine (CBZ) on brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) function were investigated in rodents pretreated with CBZ acutely or for 14 days. In behavioural experiments, mice pretreated with 14 days CBZ showed increased 5-HT2-mediated head twitch behaviour after injection of carbidopa (25 mg/kg) followed by 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, 100 mg/kg).(More)
Mouse models of ethanol (EtOH) self-administration are useful to identify genetic and biological underpinnings of alcohol use disorder. These experiments developed a novel method of oral operant EtOH self-administration in mice without explicitly paired cues, food/water restriction, or EtOH fading. Following magazine and lever training for 0.2 % saccharin(More)
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