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Babesia bovis is an apicomplexan tick-transmitted pathogen of cattle imposing a global risk and severe constraints to livestock health and economic development. The complete genome sequence was undertaken to facilitate vaccine antigen discovery, and to allow for comparative analysis with the related apicomplexan hemoprotozoa Theileria parva and Plasmodium(More)
The merozoite surface antigen 2 (MSA-2) proteins of Babesia bovis are members of the variable merozoite surface antigen (VMSA) family that have been implicated in erythrocyte invasion and are important targets for antibody-mediated blocking of invasion. Extensive sequence variation in another VMSA member, MSA-1, has been shown in all vaccine breakthrough(More)
A hypervariable region (HVR) previously identified in the carboxy-terminal one-third of the Babesia bovis variable merozoite surface antigen family was more extensively analyzed in merozoite surface antigen 1 (MSA-1) from 16 strains and isolates. The MSA-1 HVR is proline rich and contains three semiconserved motifs nearly identical to those described for(More)
Antigenic polymorphism is a defining characteristic of the Babesia bovis variable merozoite surface antigen (VMSA) family. Sequence analysis strongly suggests that recombination between virulent strains contributes to VMSA diversity. While meiosis during the aneuploid stage of the parasite's life cycle in the tick vector Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus(More)
Recent studies of the lifetime of fluorescence after picosecond pulse excitation of photosynthetic organisms revealed relatively complex decay kinetics that indicated a sum of three exponential components with lifetimes spanning the range from about 0.1-2.5 ns. These fluorescence lifetime data were examined in the context of a simple photochemical model for(More)
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