Shawn D Bushway

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These are the major conclusions of a 1997 report to Congress, which was based on a systematic review of more than 500 scientific evaluations of crime prevention practices. This Research in Brief summarizes the research methods and conclusions found in that report. In 1996, a Federal law required the U.S. Attorney General to provide Congress with an(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the cumulative proportion of youth who self-report having been arrested or taken into custody for illegal or delinquent offenses (excluding arrests for minor traffic violations) from ages 8 to 23 years. METHODS Self-reported arrest history data (excluding arrests for minor traffic violations) from the National Longitudinal Survey of(More)
A criminal history is an undeniably excellent predictor of future criminal behavior (Gendreau, Little, and Goggin, 1996). Yet despite stability in offending over time, most offenders, even those with serious criminal histories, eventually desist Employment-based reentry programs are designed and evaluated with an eye toward hastening the desistance process(More)
Two conflicting definitions of desistance exist in the criminology literature. The first definition is instantaneous desistance in which an offender simply chooses to end a criminal career instantaneously moving to a zero rate of offending (Blumstein et al., 1986). The second definition views desistance as a process by which the offending rate declines(More)
Research on recidivism in criminal justice and desistance in criminology are not integrated. Yet, both fields seem to be moving towards models that look at how positive elements in a person's environment can impact a person's behavior, conditional on different levels of risk. This study builds on this observation by applying interactional theory and the(More)
This paper examines the utility of using a unique variation produced by a ruling in the Maryland sentencing guidelines as an instrumental variable in future research. The guidelines specify that at age 26 an offender's juvenile record is discounted from the calculations, resulting in a lower sentencing grid placement and a shorter sentence. I examine in(More)
There has been a longstanding debate over the effectiveness of correctional institutions. Some argue that incarceration deters offenders while others argue that the experience of being incarcerated causes individuals to continue in their life of crime. Resolving this debate is of particular importance for young individuals when there is a national push for(More)
Past research on the relationship between school dropout and offending is inconclusive. In explaining their findings, researchers have focused on strain and control theories, and have been unable to rule out selection effects. A key advance in understanding the effect of high school dropout is disaggregation by reason for dropout. Waves one through five of(More)
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