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Gastrointestinal dysfunction is a prominent non-motor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) that contributes directly to the morbidity of patients, complicates management of motor symptoms, and may herald incipient PD in patients without motor disability. Although PD has traditionally been considered a disease of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra,(More)
BACKGROUND Free radical scavengers have failed to improve patient outcomes, promoting the concept that clinically important oxidative stress may be mediated by alternative mechanisms. We sought to examine the association of emerging aminothiol markers of nonfree radical mediated oxidative stress with clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS Plasma levels of(More)
We thank Drs Giral and colleagues for their interest in our work. They raise the important query of whether our findings would still persist after adjustment for γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), given that GGT activity hydrolyzes glutathione (GSH) to produce glutamate+cysteinylglycine. This point, however, is not relevant to our description of GSH/cystine as a(More)
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