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Epithelial cells form a highly selective barrier and line many organs. The epithelial barrier is maintained by closely apposed cell-cell contacts containing tight junctions, the regulation of which is incompletely understood. Here we report the cloning, tissue localization and evidence for a role in epithelial barrier regulation of an immunoglobulin(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consisting of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's (CD) typically displays a waxing and waning course punctuated by disease flares that are characterized by transepithelial migration of neutrophils (PMN) and altered barrier function. Since epithelial barrier function is primarily regulated by the apical most intercellular(More)
The genetic analysis of congenital skull malformations provides insight into normal mechanisms of calvarial osteogenesis. Enlarged parietal foramina (PFM) are oval defects of the parietal bones caused by deficient ossification around the parietal notch, which is normally obliterated during the fifth fetal month. PFM are usually asymptomatic, but may be(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an acute and chronic inflammatory disease of the large bowel with unknown aetiology. The immune response against normal commensal microorganisms is believed to drive inflammatory processes associated with UC. Therefore, modulation of bacterial communities on the gut mucosa, through the use of probiotics and(More)
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) arises from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a consequence of oxidative stress. Herein we report that the development of NASH is greatly accelerated in mice lacking transcription factor Nrf2 when they are challenged with a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet. After 14 days of feeding on an MCD diet,(More)
UNLABELLED There is increasing evidence that the physical environment is a critical mediator of tumor behavior. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops within an altered biomechanical environment, and increasing matrix stiffness is a strong predictor of HCC development. The aim of this study was to establish whether changes in matrix stiffness, which are(More)
AIM Obesity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly Crohn's disease (CD), has previously been considered unusual (3%). CD patients who are obese tend to have increased perianal complications and a higher level of disease activity on an annual basis. Obesity in Scotland has been documented to have increased over the last decade, and over half all(More)
The apical-most epithelial intercellular junction, referred to as the tight junction (TJ), regulates paracellular solute flux in diverse physiological and pathological states. TJ affiliations with the apical filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton are crucial in regulating TJ function. F-actin organization is influenced by the Rho GTPase family, which also(More)
Small G proteins or GTPases comprise a growing family of signal transduction molecules with inducible properties dependent upon reversible interactions with guanine nucleotides. Activation status of the proteins is characterized by preferential affinity for triphosphorylated guanine nucleotides, initiating signaling events that control fundamental processes(More)
Celiac sprue (CS) is frequently complicated by malignancy, most commonly small intestinal lymphoma. Our study was performed in an area with a high prevalence of CS to define the clinical features, response to treatment, and outcome of this tumor. Of a total of 31 lymphomas complicating CS identified, 30 case records and 24 tumor specimens were reviewed.(More)