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Although production of cytokines by TLR is essential for viral and bacterial clearance, overproduction can be detrimental, thus controlling these responses is essential. CD33-related sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin receptors (Siglecs) have been implicated in the control of leukocyte responses. In this study, we report that murine Siglec-E is induced by(More)
Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a strong inducer of inflammation and does so by inducing polarization of macrophages to the classic inflammatory M1 population. Given the role of Btk as a critical signal transducer downstream of TLR4, we investigated its role in M1/M2 induction. In Btk deficient (Btk (-\-)) mice we observed markedly reduced recruitment(More)
Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are important regulators of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cytokine responses but their role in macrophage polarization is unknown. We have shown here that myeloid-restricted Socs3 deletion (Socs3(Lyz2cre)) resulted in resistance to LPS-induced endotoxic shock, whereas Socs2(-/-) mice were highly susceptible. We(More)
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are key regulators of CD4(+) T cell differentiation, and in particular, we have recently shown that SOCS2 inhibits the development of Th2 cells and allergic immune responses. Interestingly, transcriptome analyses have identified SOCS2 as being preferentially expressed in both natural regulatory T cells(More)
This study defines a critical role for Btk in regulating TLR4-induced crosstalk between antigen presenting cells (APCs) and natural killer (NK) cells. Reduced levels of IL-12, IL-18 and IFN-γ were observed in Btk-deficient mice and ex vivo generated macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) following acute LPS administration, whilst enhanced IL-10 production(More)
The incidence of allergy and asthma in developed countries is on the increase and this trend looks likely to continue. CD4(+) T helper 2 (Th2) cells are major drivers of these diseases and their commitment is controlled by cytokines such as interleukin 4, which are in turn regulated by the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. We report that(More)
The simultaneous delivery of multiple cancer drugs in combination therapies to achieve optimal therapeutic effects in patients can be challenging. This study investigated whether co-encapsulation of the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 and the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin (CPT) in PEGylated polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) was a viable strategy for overcoming(More)
Recent murine studies have demonstrated that tumor-associated macrophages in the tumor microenvironment are a key source of the pro-tumorigenic cysteine protease, cathepsin S. We now show in a syngeneic colorectal carcinoma murine model that both tumor and tumor-associated cells contribute cathepsin S to promote neovascularization and tumor growth.(More)
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby epithelial cells undergo transition to a mesenchymal phenotype and contribute directly to fibrotic disease. Recent studies support a role for EMT in cutaneous fibrotic diseases including scleroderma and hypertrophic scarring, although there is limited data on the cytokines and signalling(More)
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a significant human pathogen, in part due to high rates of multidrug resistance. RamA is an intrinsic regulator in K. pneumoniae established to be important for the bacterial response to antimicrobial challenge; however, little is known about its possible wider regulatory role in this organism during infection. In this work, we(More)