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It is well established that preexposure of human neutrophils to proinflammatory cytokines markedly augments the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to subsequent stimuli. This priming event is thought to be critical for localizing ROS to the vicinity of the inflammation, maximizing their role in the resolution of the inflammation, and minimizing the(More)
The directional movement of cells in a gradient of external stimulus is termed chemotaxis and is important in many aspects of development and differentiated cell function. Phophoinositide 3-kinases (PI(3)Ks) are thought to have critical roles within the gradient-sensing machinery of a variety of highly motile cells, such as mammalian phagocytes, allowing(More)
Increased cell killing after exposure to low acute doses of X rays (0-0.5 Gy) has been demonstrated in cells of a number of human tumor cell lines. The mechanisms underlying this effect have been assumed to be related to a threshold dose above which DNA repair efficiency or fidelity increases. We have used cells of two radioresistant human tumor cell lines,(More)
Focal adhesion kinase (125 kDa form; pp125FAK) is a widely expressed non-receptor tyrosine kinase that is implicated in integrin-mediated signal transduction. We have identified a novel means of pp 125FAK regulation in human platelets, in which this kinase undergoes sequential proteolytic modification from the native 125 kDa form to 90, 45 and 40 kDa(More)
CLIC1 belongs to a family of highly conserved and widely expressed intracellular chloride ion channel proteins existing in both soluble and membrane integrated forms. To study the physiological and biological role of CLIC1 in vivo, we undertook conditional gene targeting to engineer Clic1 gene knock-out mice. This represents creation of the first gene(More)
Platelet aggregation at sites of vascular injury is essential for hemostasis and arterial thrombosis. It has long been assumed that platelet aggregation and thrombus growth are initiated by soluble agonists generated at sites of vascular injury. By using high-resolution intravital imaging techniques and hydrodynamic analyses, we show that platelet(More)
Platelet aggregation, the process by which platelets adhere to each other at sites of vascular injury, has long been recognized as critical for hemostatic plug formation and thrombosis. Until relatively recently, platelet aggregation was considered a straightforward process involving the noncovalent bridging of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) receptors on the(More)
Recent in vivo studies have highlighted the dynamic and complex nature of platelet thrombus growth and the requirement for multiple adhesive receptor-ligand interactions in this process. In particular, the importance of von Willebrand factor (VWF) in promoting both primary adhesion and aggregation under high shear conditions is now well established. In(More)
In this study we have examined the mechanism of platelet aggregation under physiological flow conditions using an in vitro flow-based platelet aggregation assay and an in vivo rat thrombosis model. Our studies demonstrate an unexpected complexity to the platelet aggregation process in which platelets in flowing blood continuously tether, translocate, and/or(More)
Recent genetic knock-in and pharmacological approaches have suggested that, of class IA PI3Ks (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases), it is the p110alpha isoform (PIK3CA) that plays the predominant role in insulin signalling. We have used isoform-selective inhibitors of class IA PI3K to dissect further the roles of individual p110 isoforms in insulin signalling.(More)